DESK REVIEWS | 09.01.10. Others

DESK REVIEW | 09.01.10. Others

The Ministry of Citizenship (Social Development) offers a service entitled “Specialized Protection and Support for Families and Individuals” (Proteção e Atendimento Especializado a Famílias e Indivíduos – PAEFI). This service aims to help families and individuals who are at social risk situations (child labour, abandonment, homeless etc.) or who had their rights violated (suffered from physical or psychological violence, prejudice, negligence etc.) through guidance, support, and monitoring. In this service, social assistants, psychologists, and lawyers work to promote access to rights and to strengthen people’s social and family relationships (Rodrigues, 2019b). Another service also offered by the Ministry of Citizenship is the “Special Social Protection Service for People Living with Disabilities, Older People, and their Families” (Serviço de Proteção Social Especial para Pessoas com Deficiência, Idosas e suas Famílias). This service aims to help older people with some degree of dependence, people living with disabilities, their carers, and family members through professional care in their homes, day centres, or Specialized Reference Centre for Social Assistance (CREAS) (Brazilian Ministry of Citizenship, 2014).


Brazilian Ministry of Citizenship. (2014). Tipificação Nacional de Serviços Socioassistenciais.

Rodrigues, A. (2019b). Proteção e Atendimento Especializado a Famílias e Indivíduos (PAEFI) [Página]. MINISTÉRIO DA CIDADANIA Secretaria Especial do Desenvolvimento Social.

Food and public distribution: Under the Public Distribution System (TPDS), the Antyodaya Anna Yojana Scheme provides food grains at a highly subsidised price to families living below the poverty line (Department of Food and Public Distribution, n.d.; Vikaspedia, n.d.-a).


Department of Food and Public Distribution. (n.d.). ANTYODAYA ANNA YOJANA (AAY) AAY. Government of India. Available from:

Vikaspedia (n.d.-a). Concessions and Facilities given to Senior Citizens. Government of India. Available from: