DESK REVIEWS | 06.02.13. Dementia is associated with a number of preventable risk factors. Can you provide information on:

DESK REVIEW | 06.02.13. Dementia is associated with a number of preventable risk factors. Can you provide information on:

Educational status has been reported as the main preventable risk factor in studies in México (Academia Nacional de Medicina de México, 2017).

References:

Academia Nacional de Medicina de México. (2017). La Enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias como problema nacional de salud. Documento de postura (L. Robledo, Maria. Peña, Paloma. Rojas, & A. Martinez, Eds.; 1a edición). Intersistemas. https://www.anmm.org.mx/publicaciones/ultimas_publicaciones/ANM-ALZHEIMER.pdf

The data is available in Brazil for people aged 25 years and over through the PNAD 2017 (National Household Sample Survey) and shows that 59% of the population have completed primary education in Brazil. However, if we consider the proportion of people that have the primary education as their most advanced level of education, this proportion drops to 8.5% among people aged 25 years and older. There are 12.4% of women and 13.6% of men who completed primary education as their most advanced level of education (PNAD, 2017).  As mentioned previously, a systematic review conducted in 2011 showed that the prevalence of dementia increased with age and was inversely related to the socioeconomic status and number of years of education (Fagundes et al., 2011).

References:

Fagundes, S. D., Silva, M. T., Thees, M. F. R. S., & Pereira, M. G. (2011). Prevalence of dementia among elderly Brazilians: A systematic review. Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 129(1), 46–50. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-31802011000100009

PNAD. (2017). PNAD Contínua: Edição 2017. https://agenciadenoticias.ibge.gov.br/media/com_mediaibge/arquivos/05dc6273be644304b520efd585434917.pdf

According to the National Socioeconomic Survey/Survey Sosioekonomi Nasional (Susenas) conducted in March 2018, among the population aged 15 years and older, 32.48% have completed primary school education. In urban areas, the proportion of males in this age group whose highest educational attainment is completion of primary is 19.34%, while it is 20.85% for females. In the rural areas, the proportion of males in this age group with primary school as their highest educational qualification is 33.06%. while it is 31.91% for females (Badan Pusat Statistik, 2019a).

References:

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2019a). Berita Resmi Statistik.

In 2015, the gross enrolment ratio (GER) (total enrolment regardless of age which is expressed as a percentage of the population within the official primary school education age) in primary education for Kenya was 109%. GER can exceed 100% because of the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students related to repeating grade(s) and early or late school entry. In 2012, the net enrolment rate (NER) (ratio of the enrolled official primary school age children to total population of the official primary school age children) was 84.9% (Knoema, 2019c).

References:

Knoema. (2019c). World Data Atlas: World and regional statistics, national data, maps, rankings. https://knoema.com/atlas/Kenya

In 2015, last educational level obtained by individuals 15 years and older show that 15% report completed primary level (INEGI, 2015b).

References:

INEGI. (2015b). Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, 1, 85–90. http://internet.contenidos.inegi.org.mx/contenidos/Productos/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/nueva_estruc/702825078966.pdf

Census 2011 data indicates that 63.6% (14 557 877) of men and 62.5% (15 686 381) of women in South African has attained primary education (StatsSA, 2015a).

References:

StatsSA. (2015a). Census 2011: A profile of education enrolment, attainment and progression in South Africa. Available from: http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/Report-03-01-81/Report-03-01-812011.pdf

These data are also available in Brazil for people aged 25 years and over through the PNAD 2017 (National Household Sample Survey). Data show that 46.1% of the population completed secondary education in Brazil. However, considering secondary education as one’s most advanced level of education, this amounts to 26.8%. Yet considering these data, there are 30.6% of women in Brazil who have secondary education, while this proportion is 30.2% for men (PNAD, 2017).

References:

PNAD. (2017). PNAD Contínua: Edição 2017. https://agenciadenoticias.ibge.gov.br/media/com_mediaibge/arquivos/05dc6273be644304b520efd585434917.pdf

According to the 2011 Census, the overall literacy rate was reported as 74.04% (65.46% for women and over 80% for men) among the Indian population (Census, of India, 2011).

References:

Census of India. (2011). Literacy in India. Available from: https://www.census2011.co.in/literacy.php

Data from Susenas (March 2018) also states that among those 15 years and older, 21.60%, declare their highest education attainment to be secondary (junior high) school, 13.82% completed senior high school and 5.63% vocational high school. A total of 4.49% have a university degree (including: diploma for 1-3 years education, bachelor’s degree, and postgraduate degrees).

In urban areas, among males in this age group, 20.97% declared junior high school to be their highest educational attainment for males, 27.97% reported senior high school, 8.80% vocational high school, and 12.06% a university degree. For females, these percentages are 20.92%, 24.65%, 5.92%, and 12.35%, respectively. In rural areas, 22.22% of males reported junior high school to be their highest educational attainment. 15.42% completed senior high school, 4,36% vocational high school and 4.16% a university degree. For females, these percentages were 20.98%, 12.22%, 2.61%, and 4.82%, respectively (Badan Pusat Statistik, 2019a).

References:

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2019a). Berita Resmi Statistik.

In 2012, the GER in secondary school for Kenya was 67.6% (Knoema, 2019c). Data on NER in secondary school is currently unavailable.

References:

Knoema. (2019c). World Data Atlas: World and regional statistics, national data, maps, rankings. https://knoema.com/atlas/Kenya

 

In 2015, 24% completed secondary school, 22% completed high school[1] (3 years between secondary and undergraduate education), 19% completed graduate/undergraduate education (university, technical colleges, etc.), 6% reported no formal education, and the remaining (14%) reported uncompleted primary or secondary school (some years attended but not graduated/finished) (INEGI, 2015b). On average, population 15 years and older in Mexico have 9.2 years of schooling, which would be equivalent to completing secondary education school and 93.6% of this same age group knows how to read and write (literacy).

[1] Starting in 2018, public compulsory education in Mexico comprises preschool (3 years, starting at age 3), primary education (6 years) and secondary education (3 years). For those 15 years and older at the time of the Inter-Census, compulsory education was comprised of primary (6 years) and secondary (3 years) education.

References:

INEGI. (2015b). Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, 1, 85–90. http://internet.contenidos.inegi.org.mx/contenidos/Productos/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/nueva_estruc/702825078966.pdf

Census 2011 data indicates that 27.8% (i.e. 6 362 982) of men and 27.5% (i.e. 6 913 982) of women in South African has attained secondary education (StatsSA, 2015a).

References:

StatsSA. (2015a). Census 2011: A profile of education enrolment, attainment and progression in South Africa. Available from: http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/Report-03-01-81/Report-03-01-812011.pdf

According to the most recent version of the National Health Survey (PNS 2013, in Portuguese), 21.4% of the Brazilian population above 18 years were diagnosed with hypertension. A larger proportion of women (24.2%) self-reported the diagnosis compared with men (18.3%). The proportion of people living with hypertension increased with age reaching a peak of 55.0% among people aged 75 and over, followed by the proportion of 52.7% among those between 65 and 74 years old. Among those 60 and 64 years old 44.4% had a diagnosis of hypertension and among those aged 30 and 59 years it was 20.6%. Hypertension was mostly diagnosed among black people (24.2%) followed by white (22.1%) and mixed race people (20.0%) (Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2013b).

References:

Brazilian Ministry of Health. (2013b). Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde 2013: Percepção do estado de saúde, estilos de vida e doenças crônicas. https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv91110.pdf

A cross-sectional study examining data (811,917 participants) from the National Family Health Survey 2015-2016 reported that the age adjusted prevalence rate of hypertension was 11.3% in India in persons aged between 15-49 (Ghosh and Kumar, 2019). The study also reported variations in hypertension age-adjusted prevalence across states, ranging from 8.2% in Kerala to 20.3% in Sikkim (Ghosh and Kumar, 2019).

Another study based on a national level survey carried out in 2015 examining blood pressure across 24 states and UTs (180,335 participants had their blood pressure recorded) in India, reported overall prevalence of hypertension as 30.7% (95% CI: 30.5, 30.9) (Ramakrishnan et al., 2019).

References:

Ghosh, S., & Kumar, M. (2019). Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension among persons aged 15–49 in India: a cross-sectional study. BMJ open, 9(12), e029714.

Ramakrishnan, S., Zachariah, G., Gupta, K., Rao, J. S., Mohanan, P. P., Venugopal, K., … & Banerjee, S. C. A. (2019). Prevalence of hypertension among Indian adults: results from the great India blood pressure survey. Indian heart journal, 71(4), 309-313.

There are two different estimates of the proportion of the population living with hypertension in Indonesia. One estimate suggests that prevalence of hypertension among people older than 18 years is 8.8% (Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Basic Health Survey). This estimate is based on clinical diagnosis or current use of hypertension medication. The second estimate is based on blood pressure measures taken as part of the survey and suggests a significantly higher proportion (34.1%) (Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 2018). It is important to consider the probability of white-coat hypertension (people exhibiting higher blood pressure than normal when examined in medical settings) in interpreting this data.

References:

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2018). Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Available at: http://labdata.litbang.kemkes.go.id/images/download/laporan/RKD/2018/Laporan_Nasional_RKD2018_FINAL.pdf

According to the Kenya STEPwise Survey for Non-Communicable Diseases Risk Factors 2015 Report, those who had raised blood pressure (defined as having Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) of >=140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >=90 mm Hg) was 23.8%. Those with severe hypertension (SBP of >=160 mm Hg and/or DBP >=100 mm Hg) was 8% (MoH-Kenya et al., 2015). Moreover, Kenyans with high blood pressure or on medication revealed a significantly higher prevalence among rural residents (25.3%). Highest prevalence was also seen among the middle-class (about 30%) compared to approximately 20% for individuals in the lowest quintile in terms of socio-economic status.

References:

MoH-Kenya, KNBS, & WHO. (2015). Kenya STEPwise Survey for Non Communicable Diseases Risk Factors 2015 Report. MoH-Kenya. https://www.health.go.ke/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Executive-summary-6-2.pdf

 

Please refer to Table 12 under part 06.02.13.11.

Prevalence of hypertension in the South African Demographic Health Survey (DHS) in 2016 was 48.2%, with crude prevalence estimated between 6-18% across the 9 provinces (Kandala, et al., 2021). About 46% of women and 44% of men have hypertension (systolic blood pressure above 140mmHg), rising with age and most common among white, followed by coloured men and women (StatsSA, 2017b).

References:

Kandala, N.B., Nnanatu, C.C., Dukhi, N., Sewpaul, R., Davids, A., Reddy, S.P. Mapping the Burden of Hypertension in South Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the National 2012 SANHANES and the 2016 Demographic and Health Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5445. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105445

StatsSA. (2017b). South Africa Demographic and Health Survey: Key Indicator Report 2016. Available from: https://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/Report%2003-00-09/Report%2003-00-092016.pdf

According to data from Vigitel 2018 (Surveillance System of Risk and Protection Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey), 19.8% of adults were obese (with the body mass index greater than or equals to 30Kg/m2). This rate is slightly higher among women (20.7%) than men (18.7%). The proportion of obesity among adults increased with age up to 44 years for men (25.8%) and up to 64 years for women (27.7%). In both sexes, the frequency of obesity decreased with increased education, notably for women (Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2018h).

References:

Brazilian Ministry of Health. (2018h). Vigitel Brasil 2018: Vigilância dos fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas por inquérito telefônico. http://portalarquivos2.saude.gov.br/images/pdf/2019/julho/25/vigitel-brasil-2018.pdf

The  ICMR-INDIAB 2015 study examining prevalence of obesity across 3 states (Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Jharkhand) and one UT (Chandigarh) reported obesity and abdominal obesity prevalence in India to vary between 11.8% to 31.3% and 16.9% to 36.3% respectively (Pradeepa et al., 2015). A more recent study (Venkatrao et al., 2021) examining data of around 1 lakh participants from phase 1 of a nationwide randomised cluster survey (Niyantrita Madhumeha Bharata), revealed the overall prevalence of obesity to be 40.3% in India, with wide variations across different regions of the country.

References:

Pradeepa, R., Anjana, R. M., Joshi, S. R., Bhansali, A., Deepa, M., Joshi, P. P., & Group, the I.-I. C. S. (2015). Prevalence of generalized & abdominal obesity in urban & rural India- the ICMR – INDIAB Study (Phase-I) [ICMR – INDIAB-3]. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 142(2), 139. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-5916.164234

Venkatrao, M., Nagarathna, R., Majumdar, V., Patil, S. S., Rathi, S., & Nagendra, H. (2021). Prevalence of Obesity in India and Its Neurological Implications: A Multifactor Analysis of a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study. Annals of Neurosciences, 27(3-4), 153-161. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972753120987465

 

Approximately 21.8% of the Indonesian population is considered to be obese. Obesity was defined as a Body Mass Index of 27.0 or higher (Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 2018).

References:

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2018). Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Available at: http://labdata.litbang.kemkes.go.id/images/download/laporan/RKD/2018/Laporan_Nasional_RKD2018_FINAL.pdf

According to the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (2014 KDHS), 33% of women are either overweight or obese with 10% of them being obese (Obudho et al., 2015). The focus is mostly on women and children under five with no focus on the older person or men. More recent (2016) reveal an adult prevalence rate of obesity at 7.1% (Index Mundi, 2019c).

References:

Index Mundi. (2019c). Kenya Obesity – adult prevalence rate. https://www.indexmundi.com/kenya/demographics_profile.html

Obudho, M., Munguti, J. N., Bore, J. K., & Kakinyi, M. (2015). Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2014. Nairobi, Kenya. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/fr308/fr308.pdf

Please refer to Table 12 under part 06.02.13.11.

The South African Demographic and Health survey of 2016 revealed that obesity has increased since 1998, with women having higher rates of obesity (68%) and severe obesity (i.e., 1 in 5 women with a BMI ≥35.0), compared to 31% of men being obese (StatsSA, 2017b).

References:

StatsSA. (2017b). South Africa Demographic and Health Survey: Key Indicator Report 2016. Available from: https://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/Report%2003-00-09/Report%2003-00-092016.pdf

Data from the PNS 2013 revealed that 1.1% of the population in Brazil experienced hearing loss. Regarding sex, this proportion was 1.0% among women and 1.2% among men. In the urban population, hearing loss was 1.1% while it was 1.4% among the rural population. The proportion among white people was 1.4%, while among black and mixed-race people it was 0.9%, for both groups. Hearing loss was more frequent among people aged 60 years and over (5.2%), compared with other age groups: 0-9 years (0.1%), 10-17 years (0.3%), 18-29 years (0.3%), 30-39 years (0.4%), 40-59 years (1.0%) (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2015a).

References:

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Ed.). (2015a). Pesquisa nacional de saúde, 2013: Ciclos de vida: Brasil e grandes regiões. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE.

As per the WHO estimates, it is estimated that around 63 million (6.3%) people have significant auditory impairment in India (Garg et al., 2009).

References:

Garg, S., Chadha, S., Malhotra, S., & Agarwal, A. K. (2009). Deafness: Burden, prevention and control in India. Natl Med J India22(2), 79-81.

According to a WHO report from 2000, the estimated prevalence of ‘adult onset hearing loss for adults aged 15 years and’ older was 7.1 for adults aged 41 and older, 1.4 for people aged 61 and older and 0.1 for people aged 81 and older (Mathers et al., 2000, p.8).

References:

Mathers, C., Smith, A. & Concha, M. (2000). Global burden of hearing loss in the year 2000, Geneva: World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/bod_hearingloss.pdf

Hearing impairment was the third most frequently mentioned disability (10.4%) for those aged below 21 years (Republic of Kenya, 2014b). According to the 2009 census, 28% of individuals with disability were deaf and by 2016 this number had doubled (Chacha, 2016).

References:

Chacha, G. (2016). Reaching out to heal Kenya’s deaf, 9 November. Standard Media. Nairobi, Kenya. https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/wednesday-life/article/2000222734/reaching-out-to-heal-kenyas-deaf

Republic of Kenya. (2014b). Kenya National Special Needs Education Survey Report. Nairobi, Kenya. https://www.vsointernational.org/sites/default/files/SNE%20Report_Full%20-2.pdf

Disability data from the 2010 Census (INEGI, 2010b) estimates that a total of 4,527,784 individuals (4% of the total population) live with some physical or mental limitation[1]. Of this total, 498,640 report difficulty to hear even when using a hearing aid or are deaf. Regarding older adults, data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (Gutiérrez-Robledo et al., 2012) show that 11.3% of individuals 60 years and older report hearing limitations even when using a hearing aid or are deaf. Among those, 4.9% are aged 60-69, 11.8% are 70-79 years old and 31.4% are 80 years of age and older.

[1] Since 2000 INEGi is part of the Washington Group on Disability and includes in its Census and many national surveys the Groups’ questions on disability. The term used in the Census is “limitacion con/para…” “Limitation with or to do…”

References:

Gutiérrez-Robledo, L. M., Téllez-Rojo, M. M., Espinoza-Manrique, B., Castillo-Acosta, I., López-Ortega, M., Rodríguez-Salinas, A., & Ortiz-Sosa, A. L. (2012). Evidencia para la política pública en salud. Discapacidad y dependencia en adultos mayores mexicanos : un curso sano para una vejez plena. https://ensanut.insp.mx/encuestas/ensanut2012/doctos/analiticos/DiscapacidAdultMayor.pdf

INEGI. (2010b). Principales resultados del Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010. In Principales resultados del Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010. (Vol. 1).

Modelled estimates from the Global Burden of Disease study (2016) show a prevalence of 16.9% for hearing loss (age-related and other) in South Africa.

References:

Global Burden of Disease Study. (2016).  IHME GBD results tool.  Available [online] at https://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-results/. IHME, healthdata.org.

According to the most recent version of the National Health Survey (PNS 2013, in Portuguese), 14.7% of the population smoked in 2013, with 12.7% smoking daily. The prevalence among men was 16.2% and among women was 9.7%. The proportion of those who consumed tobacco (smoked or not) was 15%. A larger proportion of men than women consumed tobacco (19.2% versus 11.2%). People within the age group 40-59 represented higher proportion of tobacco users (19.4%), followed by those aged 60 years and over (13.3%) (Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2013b).

References:

Brazilian Ministry of Health. (2013b). Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde 2013: Percepção do estado de saúde, estilos de vida e doenças crônicas. https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv91110.pdf

As per the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2016-2017 in India, 28.6% of all adults (15 and above) are tobacco users (National Health Mission, n.d.).

References:

National Health Mission (n.d.). Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2 Highlights India 2016-2017. Government of India. Available from: https://nhm.gov.in/NTCP/Surveys-Reports-Publications/GATS-2-Highlights-(National-level).pdf

The Basic Health Survey 2018 reported that 33.8% of the population over 15 years old consumed tobacco (smoked or chewed). This report did not state the overall proportion of tobacco smokers. However, another source suggests that approximately 9.1% of persons aged 10-18 years old are active smokers (Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 2018).

References:

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2018). Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Available at: http://labdata.litbang.kemkes.go.id/images/download/laporan/RKD/2018/Laporan_Nasional_RKD2018_FINAL.pdf

The rapid situation assessment of the status of drug and substance abuse in Kenya in 2012 revealed that 11% all the sampled respondents (15 – 65 years) were currently smokers (National Authority for the Campaign Against Alcohol and Drug Abuse (NACADA), 2017). In 2019 it was found that  3.2% of primary school attending children smoked (National Authority for the Campaign Against Alcohol and Drug Abuse (NACADA) and Kenya Institute For Public Policy Research And Analysis (KIPPRA), 2019). Overall, 10.1% of Kenyans use smoke, using products that include manufactured cigarettes, hand rolled cigarettes, pipes, and shisha (MoH-Kenya et al., 2015).

References:

MoH-Kenya, KNBS, & WHO. (2015). Kenya STEPwise Survey for Non Communicable Diseases Risk Factors 2015 Report. MoH-Kenya. https://www.health.go.ke/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Executive-summary-6-2.pdf

National Authority for the Campaign Against Alcohol and Drug Abuse (NACADA). (2017). The rapid situation assessment of the status of drug and substance abuse in Kenya, 2012. Nairobi, Kenya. https://www.nacada.go.ke/sites/default/files/2019-10/National%20ADA%20Survey%20Report%202017_2_2.pdf

National Authority for the Campaign Against Alcohol and Drug Abuse (NACADA) and Kenya Institute For Public Policy Research And Analysis (KIPPRA). (2019). Status of Drugs and Substance Abuse among Primary School Pupils in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya. https://nacada.go.ke/sites/default/files/2019-10/Report%20on%20the%20Status%20of%20Drugs%20and%20Substance%20Abuse%20among%20Primary%20School%20Pupils%20in%20Kenya.pdf

Please refer to Table 12 under part 06.02.13.11.

The South African Demographic and Health survey of 2016 reports that 37% of men, compared to 7% of women, 15 years and over smoke tobacco cigarettes in South Africa (StatsSA, 2017b). Thirty percent of men and 6% of women smoke daily (StatsSA, 2017b). About 1 in 5 (21%) of adolescents smoke in South Africa, with 6.8% reportedly having their first cigarette before the age of 10 (Byrne et al., 2016).

References:

Byrne, J., Eksteen, G., & Crickmore, C. (2016). Cardiovascular Disease Statistics Reference Document. Available from: https://www.heartfoundation.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/CVD-Stats-Reference-Document-2016-FOR-MEDIA-1.pdf

StatsSA. (2017b). South Africa Demographic and Health Survey: Key Indicator Report 2016. Available from: https://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/Report%2003-00-09/Report%2003-00-092016.pdf

Estimates from the WHO showed that, in 2015, 5.8% of the Brazilian population lived with depressive disorders (World Health Organization, 2017). According to the National Health Survey (PNS, 2013), 7.6% of Brazilians aged 18 years and over have been diagnosed with depression. The higher prevalence data were among urban areas (8.0% vs 5.6% in rural), women (10.9% vs 3.9% in men), and people aged 60 to 64 years old (11.1% vs 3.9% among those 19 and 28 years old) (Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2013b).

References:

Brazilian Ministry of Health. (2013b). Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde 2013: Percepção do estado de saúde, estilos de vida e doenças crônicas. https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv91110.pdf

World Health Organization. (2017). Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/254610/WHO-MSD-MER-2017.2-eng.pdf;jsessionid=F9B8AE77F2B1D3698E01577B2AFCBC03?sequence=1

The National Mental Health Survey 2015-2016 conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) reports that the ICD – 10 DCR prevalence of depressive disorders is 5.1% (lifetime) and 2.7% (current) among adults of over 18 years of age in India (National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences [NIMHANS], 2016).

References:

National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences. (2016). National Mental Health Survey of India, 2015-2016: Prevalence, Patterns and Outcomes. National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences. Available from http://indianmhs.nimhans.ac.in/Docs/Report2.pdf

The Basic Health Survey 2018 reported that 6.1% of the population live with depression. This prevalence estimate is based on an assessment with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. No information was found on the number of people getting an official diagnosis among this group. However, only 9% of them get medical treatment (Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 2018).

References:

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2018). Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Available at: http://labdata.litbang.kemkes.go.id/images/download/laporan/RKD/2018/Laporan_Nasional_RKD2018_FINAL.pdf

In the recent past, statistics by the WHO ranked Kenya on place eight (4.4%) in the international comparison of countries with the highest number of people (1,952,981) with depression (World Health Organization, 2017a). However, regional studies reveal that 19% to 25% of patients attending primary care settings or seeking care from community health providers, such as traditional healers, faith healers, and community health workers have depression (Musyimi et al., 2018; Musyimi et al., 2017; Mutiso et al., 2018).

References:

Musyimi, C. W., Mutiso, V. N., Haji, Z. R., Nandoya, E. S., & Ndetei, D. M. (2018). Mobile Based mhGAP-IG Depression Screening in Kenya. Community Mental Health Journal, 54(1), 84–91. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-016-0072-9

Musyimi, C. W., Mutiso, V. N., Musau, A. M., Matoke, L. K., & Ndetei, D. M. (2017). Prevalence and determinants of depression among patients under the care of traditional health practitioners in a Kenyan setting: policy implications. Transcultural Psychiatry, 54(3), 285–303. https://doi.org/10.1177/1363461517705590

Mutiso, V. N., Musyimi, C. W., Tomita, A., Loeffen, L., Burns, J. K., & Ndetei, D. M. (2018). Epidemiological patterns of mental disorders and stigma in a community household survey in urban slum and rural settings in Kenya. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 64(2), 120–129. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764017748180

World Health Organization. (2017a). Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva, Switzerland. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/254610/WHO-MSD-MER-2017.2-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Data from the ENSANUT 2012 survey (Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, 2012), taking a cut-off point of 7≥9 of the Center of Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES–D) (Radloff, 1977), shows that the prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms is estimated at 22.7% (95% CI 16.5-28.9) of women and 8.3% (95% CI 3.3-13.2) of men. Looking at these data by age group, it shows that 14.7% (95% CI 10.3-19.1) adults aged 20-59 years, and 26.8% (95% CI 15.2-38.4%) adults aged 60 years and older experience clinically significant symptoms of depression (Salinas-Rodríguez et al., 2013).

References:

Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. (2012). Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2012. Resultados nacionales. https://ensanut.insp.mx/encuestas/ensanut2012/doctos/informes/ENSANUT2012ResultadosNacionales.pdf

Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385–401. https://doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306

Salinas-Rodríguez, A., En, M. C., Manrique-Espinoza, B., En, D. C., Acosta-Castillo, I., Ma Téllez-Rojo, M., Franco-Núñez, A., Miguel Gutiérrez-Robledo, L., En, D. C., & Luisa Sosa-Ortiz, A. (2013). Validación de un punto de corte para la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos, versión abreviada (CESD-7). Salud Pública de México, 55(3), 267–274. http://saludpublica.mx/index.php/spm/article/viewFile/7209/9386

Modelled estimates from the Global Burden of Disease study (2016) show a prevalence of 3.93% for depressive disorders in South Africa.

References:

Global Burden of Disease Study. (2016). IHME GBD results tool. Available [online] at https://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-results/. IHME, healthdata.org.

According to the most recent version of the National Health Survey (PNS 2013, in Portuguese), 46.0% of the Brazilian population above 18 years were physically inactive (‘physically inactive’ defined as people who did not practice physical activity or who did practice it for less than 150 minutes per week, considering three domains: leisure, work, and commuting). Among people aged 60 and over, the proportion was 62.7%. In general, women showed higher proportions than men, varying from 50.3% in the Southern region to 53.4% in the Northern region. White people were more likely to be inactive (47.9%), compared to black (42.4%), and mixed race people (44.8%) (Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2013b).

References:

Brazilian Ministry of Health. (2013b). Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde 2013: Percepção do estado de saúde, estilos de vida e doenças crônicas. https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv91110.pdf

According to an ICMR-INDIAB study (Anjana et al., 2014), physical activity was assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in 14,227 individuals aged above 20 years across 4 parts of India – Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, and Chandigarh, representing the south, west, east, and north of India, respectively. In this study, of the 14,227 individuals studied, 54.4% (n = 7,737) were found to be inactive (Anjana et al., 2014). A more recent study analysed data of around 2 lakh individuals from the Niyantrita Madhumeha Bharata 2017 randomised cluster survey and reported that 20% of the sample were physically inactive (Podder et al., 2020).

References:

Anjana, R. M., Pradeepa, R., Das, A. K., Deepa, M., Bhansali, A., Joshi, S. R., … & Subashini, R. (2014). Physical activity and inactivity patterns in India–results from the ICMR-INDIAB study (Phase-1) [ICMR-INDIAB-5]. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11(1), 26. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-11-26

Podder, V., Nagarathna, R., Anand, A., Patil, S. S., Singh, A. K., & Nagendra, H. R. (2020). Physical activity patterns in India stratified by zones, age, region, BMI, and implications for COVID-19: a nationwide study. Annals of Neurosciences27(3-4), 193-203. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972753121998507

It is estimated that 33.5% of the national population were categorised as physically inactive (defined as a cumulative physical activities less than 150 minutes per week) (Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 2018).

References:

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2018). Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Available at: http://labdata.litbang.kemkes.go.id/images/download/laporan/RKD/2018/Laporan_Nasional_RKD2018_FINAL.pdf

 

Based on the global report on physical activity that was released by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2018, 15.4% (13.9% for males and 16.8% for females) of adult Kenyans are not as active as per the recommended 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous physical activity by WHO (Guthold et al., 2018).

References:

Guthold, R., Stevens, G. A., Riley, L. M., & Bull, F. C. (2018). Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1· 9 million participants. The Lancet Global Health, 6(10), e1077–e1086. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(18)30357-7/fulltext

While it is widely acknowledged that the Mexican population in general is not very physically active, not much data is available to confirm this. Since 2013, INEGI started to collect data through the Sport and Physical Activity Module[1] (MOPRADEF) and in 2017 it was approved as a key indicator in the design and evaluation of public policies and is now part of INEGI’s National Catalogue of Indicators. The latest report from MOPRADEF in 2017 (INEGI, 2018c) shows that only 42.4% of population 18 years and older practices some sport in their spare time or is physically active[2], showing a slight decrease since 2013 (45.4%) when data was first gathered. Men reported being more active (49.8%) than women (36.0%) and as age increases, people reported being less physically active.

[1] Módulo de Práctica Deportiva y Ejercicio Físico MOPRADEF; http://www.beta.inegi.org.mx/proyectos/enchogares/modulos/mopradef/default.html

[2] Sufficient physical-sport activity was defined as practicing some sport or physical activity at least three times a week, accumulating at least 75 minutes of vigorous or 150 minutes of moderate intensity per week.

References:

INEGI. (2018c). Módulo de Práctica Deportiva y Ejercicio Físico. https://www.inegi.org.mx/contenidos/programas/mopradef/doc/resultados_mopradef_nov_2018.pdf

It is estimated that 27.9% of men and 45.2% of women in South Africa are physically inactive (Byrne et al., 2016). For South African 50 years and older, 60.5% are involved in low, 10.9% in moderate, and 28.6% in high physical activity (Peltzer K & Phaswana-Mafuya, 2012).

References:

Byrne, J., Eksteen, G., & Crickmore, C. (2016). Cardiovascular Disease Statistics Reference Document. Available from: https://www.heartfoundation.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/CVD-Stats-Reference-Document-2016-FOR-MEDIA-1.pdf

Peltzer K & Phaswana-mafuya, N. (2012). Physical inactivity and associated factors in older adults in South Africa. African Journal of Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 6018.

According to the most recent version of the National Health Survey (PNS 2013, in Portuguese), 6.2% of the Brazilian population above 18 years old were diagnosed with diabetes. The proportion was higher in women (7.0%) than in men (5.4%) and increased with age from 0.6% in the age group 18-29 years to 19.9% among people aged 64 and 75 years old. For those over 75 years old, the proportion of diagnosed diabetes was 19.6%. There was no significant difference among ethnic groups: black people (7.2%), white (6.7%) and mixed race (5.5%). The lower the educational level, the higher the proportion of diabetes (9.6% among people with less than 4 years of formal education) (Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2013b).

References:

Brazilian Ministry of Health. (2013b). Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde 2013: Percepção do estado de saúde, estilos de vida e doenças crônicas. https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv91110.pdf

The ICMR – INDIAB study reported that the overall prevalence of diabetes in all 15 states of India was 7.3% in 2015 (95% CI 7.0–7.5) (Anjana et al., 2017). The more recent National Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy Survey of India 2015-2019 reported the prevalence of diabetes in surveyed population (63,000 aged 50 and above in 21 districts) to be 11.8% (All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, 2019)).

References:

All India Institute of Medical Sciences. National Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy Survey of India 2015-2019. n.d. National Program for Control of Blindness and Visual Impairment, Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Available from: https://npcbvi.gov.in/writeReadData/mainlinkFile/File342.pdf

Anjana, R. M., Deepa, M., Pradeepa, R., Mahanta, J., Narain, K., Das, H. K., …. Bhansali, A. (2017). Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR–INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study. The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology, 5(8), 585-596. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30174-2

According to the Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Basic Health Survey) 2018 the prevalence of diabetes in people older than 15 years in Indonesia is 2%. This estimated prevalence is based on the existence of clinical diagnosis. However, a blood test-based diagnosis suggested a higher proportion (10.9%) (Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 2018).

References:

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2018). Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Available at: http://labdata.litbang.kemkes.go.id/images/download/laporan/RKD/2018/Laporan_Nasional_RKD2018_FINAL.pdf

As of 2017, 2% (458,900 individuals) of Kenya’s total adult population (estimated at 23,147,000) had diabetes (International Diabetes Federation (IDF), 2017). This is likely to be an underestimation since 60% of people diagnosed with diabetes seek primary health care services for unrelated problems because they are not cognizant that they have the disease (Republic of Kenya, 2015a).

References:

International Diabetes Federation (IDF). (2017). IDF Diabetes Atlas – 8th Edition. https://diabetesatlas.org/upload/resources/previous/files/8/IDF_DA_8e-EN-final.pdf

Republic of Kenya. (2015a). Kenya National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases 2015-2020. Nairobi, Kenya. https://www.who.int/nmh/ncd-task-force/kenya-strategy-ncds-2015-2020.pdf

Please refer to Table 12 below under part 06.02.13.11.

Modelled estimates from the Global Burden of Disease study (2016) show a prevalence of 5.66% for diabetes in South Africa.

References:

Global Burden of Disease Study. (2016). IHME GBD results tool.  Available [online] at https://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-results/. IHME, healthdata.org.

The proportion of the population aged 18 years and over who consumed alcohol at least once a week in 2013 was 24.0%. Among men, this proportion was 36.3% and among women it was 13.0%. Besides, 30.5 % of people with university degree consumed alcohol compared with 19.0% of people with less than 4 years of education. Among age groups, those aged 18-24 years represented 27.1% of the population consuming alcohol, people between 25-39 years old accounted for 28.5%, those between 40 and 59 years old for 23.4% and those with 60 years and older represented 14.2% (Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2013b).

References:

Brazilian Ministry of Health. (2013b). Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde 2013: Percepção do estado de saúde, estilos de vida e doenças crônicas. https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv91110.pdf

According to the World Health Organisation’s Global Health Observatory, the amount of alcohol consumed per capita (15+) in India in 2018 was 3.09 litres (World Health Organization, 2018).

References:

World Health Organization. 2018. Global Health Observatory-Alcohol recorded per capita (15+) consumption (in litres of pure alcohol). World Health Organization. Available from: https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/indicators/indicator-details/GHO/alcohol-recorded-per-capita-(15-)-consumption-(in-litres-of-pure-alcohol)

No data was found regarding the amount of alcohol consumed per capita.

An estimated 3.3% of the population aged 10 and over were reported to consume alcoholic drinks, although only 0.8% were reported to be heavy drinkers (Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 2018).

References:

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2018). Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Available at: http://labdata.litbang.kemkes.go.id/images/download/laporan/RKD/2018/Laporan_Nasional_RKD2018_FINAL.pdf

Kenyans (aged 15 years and above) who are current drinkers for the past one year consume 3.4 litres (5.9 and 0.9 for males and females respectively) of alcohol per capita revealing a higher consumption of alcohol among men compared to women (World Health Organization (WHO), 2018).

References:

World Health Organization (WHO). (2018). Global status report on alcohol and health 2018. Geneva, Switzerland. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/274603/9789241565639-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

 

According to data reported by the OECD (OECD, 2016a), the number of litres of alcohol consumed per capita by individuals 15 years and older in Mexico was 4.0 in 2014 and 4.4 in 2016.

References:

OECD. (2016a). OECD iLibrary | Alcohol consumption. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/alcohol-consumption/indicator/english_e6895909-en

South Africa’s total per capita alcohol consumption for persons 15 years and over is estimated between 10 and 12.4 litres, and it is considered high compared to the global average of 6.2 litres (WHO, 2014).

References:

WHO. (2014). Global Status report on alcohol and health 2014. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/112736/9789240692763_eng.pdf?sequence=1

The PNS 2013 showed that 12.5% of people aged 18 years and over were diagnosed with high cholesterol. The estimated proportion in urban areas was 13.0%, while in rural areas it was 10.0%. The proportion was higher among women (15.1%) than men (9.7%). The frequency of people who referred diagnosis of high cholesterol was more representative in the older age groups: 25.9% among those aged 60 to 64 years, 25.5% among people aged 65 to 74 years, and 20.3% between those aged 75 years and older. The proportion of white people who reported altered cholesterol (13.4%) was higher than for black (11.2%) and mixed race (11.8%) people (Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2013b).

References:

Brazilian Ministry of Health. (2013b). Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde 2013: Percepção do estado de saúde, estilos de vida e doenças crônicas. https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv91110.pdf

A review of population-based studies in India had reported that high cholesterol is prevalent in 25-30% and 15-20% of urban and rural residents, respectively (Gupta et al., 2017).

References:

Gupta, R., Rao, R. S., Misra, A., & Sharma, S. K. (2017). Recent trends in epidemiology of dyslipidemias in India. Indian heart journal, 69(3), 382-392.

The most recent data on cholesterol levels in the national population aged 15 and over is available from the Riskesdas 2018. High total cholesterol (> 240 mg/dL) was found in 7.6% of the population and borderline results (200-239 mg/dL) were found in 21.2% (Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 2018).

References:

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2018). Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Available at: http://labdata.litbang.kemkes.go.id/images/download/laporan/RKD/2018/Laporan_Nasional_RKD2018_FINAL.pdf

The Kenya STEPwise Survey for Non-Communicable Diseases Risk Factors 2015 Report revealed that about 98% of Kenyans had never had their cholesterol levels measured. Out of those that had been measured, only 13.3% who reported to have been diagnosed with elevated cholesterol levels were on medication. 10% of the respondents had either cholesterol ≥ 5.0 mmol/L or currently on medication for raised cholesterol (MoH-Kenya et al., 2015).

References:

MoH-Kenya, KNBS, & WHO. (2015). Kenya STEPwise Survey for Non Communicable Diseases Risk Factors 2015 Report. MoH-Kenya. https://www.health.go.ke/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Executive-summary-6-2.pdf

 

 

Please refer to Table 12 below.

Table 12. Prevalence of risk factors in adults 20 years of age or older, by sex and age groups. Mexico

  20-39 40-59 >60 Total
Hypertension
Men 20.2 25.8 43.7 25.11
Women 19.8 38.6 48.3 30.0
Total 20.0 32.3 46.1 27.6
Obesity or overweight (total)
Men 19.6 23.8 31.7 23.3
Women 24.6 37.2 24.9 29.0
Total 22.3 30.9 27.3 26.4
Diabetes
Men 13.7 27.8 44.3 23.0
Women 19.0 46.1 53.7 33.8
Total 16.5 37.8 49.5 28.9
High cholesterol
Men 16.2 42.3 52.2 32.3
Women 19.9 50.2 58.4 38.2
Total 18.2 46.5 55.7 35.5
Smokes*
Men 45.8 42.0 19.7 39.8
Women 25.5 19.3 10.3 20.3
Total 34.8 30.0 14.4 29.3
Alcohol**
Men 44.1 33.0 26.9 36.9
Women 17.0 9.2 4.0 11.8
Total 29.4 20.4 14.2 23.3

Source: ENSANUT, 2012 (Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, 2012). *Percentage of population aged 20 and over who smoke

**Has been intoxicated with alcohol at least once in the past month.

References:

Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. (2012). Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2012. Resultados nacionales. https://ensanut.insp.mx/encuestas/ensanut2012/doctos/informes/ENSANUT2012ResultadosNacionales.pdf

Total cholesterol is estimated at 23.9%, with LDL-cholesterol at 28.8%, and 47.9% have low HDL-cholesterol (Byrne et al., 2016).

References:

Byrne, J., Eksteen, G., & Crickmore, C. (2016). Cardiovascular Disease Statistics Reference Document. Available from: https://www.heartfoundation.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/CVD-Stats-Reference-Document-2016-FOR-MEDIA-1.pdf