DESK REVIEWS | The proportion of people with primary education?

DESK REVIEW | The proportion of people with primary education?

The data is available in Brazil for people aged 25 years and over through the PNAD 2017 (National Household Sample Survey) and shows that 59% of the population have completed primary education in Brazil. However, if we consider the proportion of people that have the primary education as their most advanced level of education, this proportion drops to 8.5% among people aged 25 years and older. There are 12.4% of women and 13.6% of men who completed primary education as their most advanced level of education (PNAD, 2017).  As mentioned previously, a systematic review conducted in 2011 showed that the prevalence of dementia increased with age and was inversely related to the socioeconomic status and number of years of education (Fagundes et al., 2011).


Fagundes, S. D., Silva, M. T., Thees, M. F. R. S., & Pereira, M. G. (2011). Prevalence of dementia among elderly Brazilians: A systematic review. Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 129(1), 46–50.

PNAD. (2017). PNAD Contínua: Edição 2017.

According to the National Socioeconomic Survey/Survey Sosioekonomi Nasional (Susenas) conducted in March 2018, among the population aged 15 years and older, 32.48% have completed primary school education. In urban areas, the proportion of males in this age group whose highest educational attainment is completion of primary is 19.34%, while it is 20.85% for females. In the rural areas, the proportion of males in this age group with primary school as their highest educational qualification is 33.06%. while it is 31.91% for females (Badan Pusat Statistik, 2019a).


Badan Pusat Statistik. (2019a). Berita Resmi Statistik.

In 2015, the gross enrolment ratio (GER) (total enrolment regardless of age which is expressed as a percentage of the population within the official primary school education age) in primary education for Kenya was 109%. GER can exceed 100% because of the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students related to repeating grade(s) and early or late school entry. In 2012, the net enrolment rate (NER) (ratio of the enrolled official primary school age children to total population of the official primary school age children) was 84.9% (Knoema, 2019c).


Knoema. (2019c). World Data Atlas: World and regional statistics, national data, maps, rankings.

In 2015, last educational level obtained by individuals 15 years and older show that 15% report completed primary level (INEGI, 2015b).


INEGI. (2015b). Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, 1, 85–90.