DESK REVIEWS | 06.02.04. Is the prevalence of dementia more pronounced in any specific geographical areas?

DESK REVIEW | 06.02.04. Is the prevalence of dementia more pronounced in any specific geographical areas?

All studies on prevalence were conducted in the South and South-Eastern regions of Brazil, so we do not have data from other regions to compare. Even within the same region there is, however, an important variation on prevalence, but this is more likely due to differences in the methodology used in the different studies.

As per the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study (India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative Neurological Disorders Collaborators, 2021), 3.69 million people were living with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias in 2019 in India. The GBD study (India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative Neurological Disorders Collaborators, 2021) also provides state-wise prevalence and crude DALY rate for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias per 100,000 in 2019 (Table 6.3).

Table 6.3 depicts state wise prevalence and crude DALY rate (2019) – per 100,000

Sl No STATE PREVALENCE CRUDE DALY RATE
1 Andhra Pradesh 368 224
2 Arunachal Pradesh 149 95
3 Assam 192 112
4 Bihar 203 114
5 Chhattisgarh 227 133
6 Delhi 201 110
7 Goa 414 231
8 Gujarat 252 149
9 Haryana 286 174
10 Himachal Pradesh 359 214
11 Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh 247 142
12 Jharkhand 244 141
13 Karnataka 318 185
14 Kerala 564 312
15 Madhya Pradesh 227 129
16 Maharashtra 323 193
17 Manipur 217 133
18 Meghalaya 164 111
19 Mizoram 213 129
20 Nagaland 198 125
21 Odisha 292 189
22 Other UT’s 255 145
23 Punjab 356 208
24 Rajasthan 231 134
25 Sikkim 247 142
26 Tamil Nadu 366 182
27 Telangana 272 157
28 Tripura 265 151
29 Uttar Pradesh 195 113
30 Uttarakhand 256 150
  India 266 153

Source: (India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative Neurological Disorders Collaborators, 2021 (Data From Figure 2 and Supplementary Document)).

The numbers of persons with dementia are further estimated to increase by 197% between 2019-2050 in India, with 11.4 million people projected to live with dementia in India in 2050 (GBD 2019 Dementia Forecasting Collaborators, 2022).

References:

GBD 2019 Dementia Forecasting Collaborators. (2022). Estimation of the global prevalence of dementia in 2019 and forecasted prevalence in 2050: an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet Public Health.

India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative Neurological Disorders Collaborators (2021). The burden of neurological disorders across the states of India: The Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2019. The Lancet. Global health, 9(8), e1129–e1144.

There has been not enough evidence to conclude a dementia prevalence nationally. However, Surveymeter’s studies showed higher prevalence in rural areas both in Yogyakarta (23.0%) and Bali (36.1%) (Suriastini et al., 2016, 2018).

References:

Suriastini, Turana, Y., Sukadana, W., Sikoki, B., Witoelar, F., Lesmana, C. B. J., Mulyanto, E. D., Hermoko, R., & Anandari, G. A. A. A. (2018). Menggugah Lahirnya Kebijakan Kelanjutusiaan Menggugah Lahirnya Kebijakan Kelanjutusiaan.

Suriastini, Turana, Y., Witoelar, F., Supraptilah, B., Wicaksono, T., & Dwi, E. (2016). Policy Brief Angka Prevalensi Demensia: Perlu Perhatian Kita Semua. SurveyMETER, Maret, 1–4.

It is not evident through literature whether the prevalence of dementia is pronounced in some specific geographical areas. However, a report by the Africa Mental Health Research and Training Foundation revealed a high rate of people with mild to moderate cognitive impairment in Makueni County in Kenya. Among all people with mental health problems, the rate of cognitive impairment using Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) was estimated to be 16%. This led to dementia (manifested as cognitive impairment) being ranked third, after depression and drug and substance abuse (Mutiso et al., 2016). This is the only study in Kenya that has been conducted to estimate prevalent rates on dementia.

References:

Mutiso, V., Pike, K. M., Ndetei, D., Musau, A., Nandoya’, E., Musyimi’, C., … Wambua, R. (2016). Multi-sectoral Stakeholder TEAM Approach to Scale-Up Community Mental Health in Kenya: Building on Locally Generated Evidence and Lessons Learnt (TEAM). Nairobi, Kenya. https://www.mhinnovation.net/sites/default/files/downloads/innovation/reports/TEAM%20Project%20Report%20to%20County_Final_31_01_17.pdf

Even though there is no official data reported at the state level, an analysis with the data derived from ENSANUT (Acosta-Castillo et al., 2017) demonstrates great variability in the prevalence of dementia by state and suggests that numeorous people affected by dementia experience high levels of vulnerability.

References:

Acosta-Castillo, G. I., Sosa-Ortiz, A. L., Manrique Espinoza, B. S., Salinas Rodriguez, A., & Juárez, M. de los Á. L. (2017). Prevalence of Dementia By State and Level of Marginalization in Mexico. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 13(7), P512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2017.06.583