DESK REVIEWS | 01.01. Population and demographic characteristics

DESK REVIEW | 01.01. Population and demographic characteristics

Population data come from INEGI[1], while population data projections come from the World Population Prospects of 2017, the latest demographic estimates and projections prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the Secretariat of the United Nations.

[1] In Mexico, the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografia, INEGI) is an autonomous public organisation responsible for regulating and coordinating the national system of statistical and geographic information, as well as capturing and disseminating information about the country in terms of territory, resources, population, and the economy. It also coordinates the National Population Census, carried out every 10 years and inter-census surveys every 5 years. The 2010 Census is the most recent and currently is the most complete source of sociodemographic information in the country, describing the demographic, social and economic characteristics of the population. An inter-census survey conducted in 2015 aimed to generate updated statistical information on the population and housing in the country, which maintains historical comparability with national censuses and surveys.

According to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), the total population of Brazil in February 2019 was of 209,575 thousand people, of which 48.90% were men and 51.10% were women.  Around 21.35% of the population are aged 14 years old or less, 69.43% are aged between 15 and 64 years old, and around 9.22% are aged 65 and over (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2019f). It is important to point out that these proportions vary among the five geographic regions in Brazil (North, Northeast, Central-west, South and Southeast). For example, in 2012 the proportion of people aged 65 and over was 4.5% in the Northern region, 7.2% in the North-Eastern region, 8% in both Southern and South-Eastern regions, and 5.8% in the Central-West region (Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2019o).

References:

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. (2019f). Population projections.

Brazilian Ministry of Health. (2019o). TabNet Win32 3.0: População Residente—Brasil. http://tabnet.datasus.gov.br/cgi/tabcgi.exe?ibge/cnv/popuf.def

The current population of India is 1.3 billion people, which accounts for 18% of the total global population (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2017). Populations projections for 2021 state that 25.5% of the population are between the age of 0-14 years, 64.4% are between the age of 15-59 years and 10.1% are 60 years and above (National Commission of Population (NCP), 2019).

With respect to sex ratio, as per Census of India 2011 (Census of India: Gender Composition, 2011), there are reportedly 940 females to 1000 males in India.

References:

Census of India: Gender Composition (2011). Available from: https://www.census2011.co.in/sexratio.php

National Commission of Population. (2019). Census of India 2011: Population Projections for India and States 2011-2036. REPORT OF THE TECHNICAL GROUP ON POPULATION PROJECTIONS. National Health Mission. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Available from: https://nhm.gov.in/New_Updates_2018/Report_Population_Projection_2019.pdf

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017). World Population Prospects. The 2017 Revision. Available from: https://www.un.org/development/desa/publications/world-population-prospects-the-2017-revision.html

Indonesia, with a population of 262,787,403 (July 2018) currently ranks as the fourth most populated country in the world following China, India, and the United States (CIA World Factbook, 2019). The population of Indonesia has been increasing constantly since the 1960s (population of 87,792,515 in 1960). Between 2015 and 2018, the population has grown by 4,625,290 (Subdirectorate of Statistical Demographic, 2013; World Bank, 2019a). Based on the statistics of Indonesia’s population projection, it is estimated that the population size will increase to 305,652,400 by 2035 (Subdirectorate of Statistical Demographic, 2013).

In Indonesia, children aged 0 to 14 years make up 24.63% (male: approx. 33 million; female: approx. 32 million) of the population. The group of the 15 to 24 years old, with 16.94% makes up a slightly smaller proportion (male: approx. 23 million; female approx. 22 million). The age group 25 to 54 year represents the largest share of the Indonesian population in 2018 (42.44%; male: approx. 57 million; female: approx. 54 million). The share of the 55 to 64-year-old with 8.73% is considerably smaller (male: approx. 10 million; female: approx. 12 million). The age group 65 and older reflects 7.26% of the Indonesia population. As in the age group 55-64 years, there are more older women (approx. 11 million) than men (approx. 8 million) among those aged 65 and older (CIA World Factbook, 2019). According to United Nations Population Fund’s report, Indonesia’s population older people is the sixth largest in the world (UNFPA & HelpAge International, 2012).

References:

CIA World Factbook. (2019). Indonesia. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/indonesia/

Subdirectorate of Statistical Demographic. (2013). Indonesia Population Projection 2010-2035. BPS – Statistics Indonesia.

UNFPA & HelpAge International. (2012). Ageing in the Twenty-First Century: A Celebration and A Challenge. In United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), New York, and HelpAge International, London. UNFPA-HelpAge. https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/UNFPA-Exec-Summary.pdf

World Bank. (2019a). Indonesia. https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/indonesia/overview

Globally, Kenya ranks top 30 in terms of its population size (Worldometers, 2019), with more than 70% of the population situated in rural areas. The 2019 census (conducted every 10 years) revealed a total population of 47,564,296 (males: 23,548,056; females: 24,014,716 and intersex population: 1,524), 12,143, 913 households, with an average household size of 3.9. Kenya covers a land area of 580,876.3 km2 and a population density of 82 per km2(Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), 2019).

References:

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS). (2019). 2019 Kenya Population and Housing Census Volume I : Population By County and Sub-County (Vol. I). Nairobi, Kenya.http://housingfinanceafrica.org/app/uploads/VOLUME-I-KPHC-2019.pdf

Worldometers. (2019). Kenya Population (LIVE). https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/kenya-population/

According to the 2015 Inter-census Survey, the total population in Mexico was 119,938,473 persons, of which 51.4% were women and 48.6% men. There are 94.4 men for every 100 women. The median age of the population was 27 years (INEGI, 2015b). The structure of the population reflects the interaction between the birth rate and mortality over time. Comparing the population structure by age in the years 2000 and 2015, we observe the typical pattern followed by ageing societies where the younger population groups decrease (the base starts shrinking) while middle age and older age groups increase. For the first time in 2015, the numbers of people aged 60 years and older is larger than the numbers aged 0 to 4 years old, which indicates a decrease in the proportion of children and an increase in older adults. Older people represent 5% of the total population for the year 2000, and 6.2% in 2010, and 7.2% in 2015 (INEGI, 2015c).

The median age for 2015 was 27 years, a notable increase from the 22 years reported in the year 2000. However, there are notable differences between the different states, reflecting the heterogeneous development, economic transition, and ageing process in each state. For example, in the state of Chiapas, located in the south of the country, the median age is 23 years, while for Mexico City it is 33 (INEGI, 2018b). This heterogeneity is also observed in the aging index[2]. In 2015, while on average there were 38 adults 60 years and older per 100 children, there were 62 in Mexico City and 24 in the state of Chiapas (González, 2015). 

Old-age dependency ratio

The total dependency ratio[3] in Mexico in 2015 was 53 older adults per 100 younger individuals. Traditionally international organisations have used this ratio to express how those who are assumed to be not economically independent (the youngest and the oldest population groups) depend on those who are (adolescent and younger adults), it is clear that worldwide this is not necessarily true as both groups have changed significantly. On one hand, young adults in many countries do not move out of the parental household as early as they did in the past, continuing to be dependent on their parents, and on the other hand, large percentages of older adults continue to be physically and economically independent well beyond the age of 60 or 65, and therefore alternative estimations have been considered (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2017b).

There is variation in the dependency ratio between states within the country, the state of Chiapas has the highest total ratio of dependence, 64 per 100 people of working age, and this can be attributed to a high level of fertility. On the other hand, migration also affects this indicator, since there are states with a high reception of working-age population, such as Quintana Roo, Baja California Sur, and Queretaro. While Mexico City has a low ratio of total dependence, it has the highest dependency ratio in old age compared to the other states of the country (INEGI, 2015c).

Fertility

The rapid demographic transition currently taking place in the country reflects the decline in fertility in the last decades, going from a Global Fertility Rate (GFR) of 5.73 children born alive per women 15 to 49 years old, to a GFR of 1.9 in the year 2000, and 1.7 in 2015, with a total decrease of 31.8% in the number of children born alive (INEGI, 2015b). Socioeconomic situation and women’s education have a differentiated impact on GFR, while women with low or no educational attainment have an average of 3.2 children, women with medium and higher level of education have 1.1 (INEGI, 2015b). However, Mexico had an increment in adolescent pregnancies (among women aged 15 to 19) which grew by almost 6 points between 2009 and 2015 (INEGI, 2015b). Women living in larger urban areas had lower global fertility rates than those living in urban centres with less than 100,000 in habitants (2.0 vs 2.8 respectively) (INEGI, 2015b).

[2] The aging Index is estimated as the ratio of population 60 years and older for every 100 individuals less than 15 years.

[3] For Mexico, INEGI estimates the dependency ratio by dividing total of household members who are not of working age (0 to 14 and 60 years and older) by the total of those considered of working age (15 to 59 years old).

References:

González, K. (2015). Envejecimiento demográfico en México: análisis comparativo entre las entidades federativas. In La Situación Demográfica de México 2015 (pp. 113–129). Consejo Nacional de Población. http://www.conapo.gob.mx/work/models/CONAPO/Resource/2702/06_envejecimiento.pdf

INEGI. (2015a). Censo de Alojamientos de Asistencia Social. https://www.inegi.org.mx/programas/caas/2015/

INEGI. (2015b). Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, 1, 85–90. http://internet.contenidos.inegi.org.mx/contenidos/Productos/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/nueva_estruc/702825078966.pdf

INEGI. (2015c). Mortalidad. Esperanza de vida al nacimiento por entidad federativa.

INEGI. (2018b). INEGI. Datos. https://www.inegi.org.mx/datos/

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, P. D. (2017b). World population prospects: the 2017 revision. Volume II: Demographic Profiles, 2, 1–883. https://population.un.org/wpp/publications/Files/WPP2017_Volume-II-Demographic-Profiles.pdf

Brazil’s geography is mostly continental, with a few small islands that are economically and geographically closely connected with the mainland. The five geographic regions in the country are different in terms of demography. For instance, while the southeast region (that covers 11% of the Brazilian territory) accounts for 43% of the population and 56% of the gross domestic product; the north region (containing most of the Amazon forest) is the second poorest region, after the northeast region, and has the lowest population density (3.9 people per Km2) (Paim et al., 2011). In general, Brazil has a population density of 24.66 inhabitants per square kilometre. Around 76% of the Brazilian population live in urban areas which correspond to 26% of the municipalities; whereas about 60% of the municipalities are considered rural and encompass 17% of the population (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2012).

 

References:

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. (2012). Nova proposta de classificacao territorial mostra um brasil menos urbano. https://agenciadenoticias.ibge.gov.br/agencia-noticias/2012-agencia-de-noticias/noticias/15007-nova-proposta-de-classificacao-territorial-mostra-um-brasil-menos-urbano

Paim, J., Travassos, C., Almeida, C., Bahia, L., & Macinko, J. (2011). The Brazilian health system: History, advances, and challenges. The Lancet, 377(9779), 1778–1797. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60054-8

The population density of India has increased from 324 persons per square kilometer in 2001 to 382 persons per square kilometers in 2011 (Census of India, 2011), which is an increase of 57 more people per square kilometer (Census of India, 2011). With respect to urban and rural population distribution, the Census of 2011 reports that from the total population of 1.2 billion, the rural and urban population accounted for 833.5 million (68.8%) and 377.1 million (31.2%), respectively (Chandramouli, 2011).

References:

Census of India. (2011). Density of India. Available from https://www.census2011.co.in/density.php

Chandramouli, C. (2011). RURAL URBAN DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION: Provisional Population Totals. Available from https://hetv.org/india/india-rural-urban-distribution-of-population-2011.pdf

According to Indonesia’s National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the Republic of Indonesia stretches over an archipelago of 13,466 islands out of which 922 are permanently inhabited. However, there is some debate regarding the exact number of islands (Hidayat, 2017). The five largest islands are Papua, Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), Sumatra, Java, and Sulawesi (Adam et al., 2019; Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia Washington DC, 2017). The country has a tropical climate, with hot and humid weather all year long (CIA World Factbook, 2019).

The majority of the population is concentrated on the islands of Java and Sumatra (CIA World Factbook, 2019). Java, one of the world’s most densely populated island, houses the majority of the Indonesian population, despite only covering 7% of the total land territory of the country (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2017). Just over half of the Indonesian population (55.3% in 2018) is estimated to live in urban areas. The largest urban areas are the capital Jakarta (10.517 million, 2018) Bekasi (3.2 million), Surabaya (2.9 million), Bandung (2.5 million), Medan (2.3 million), and Tangerang (2.22 million) (CIA World Factbook, 2019).

References:

Adam, A. W., Wolters, O. W., Mohamad, G. S., Legge, J. D., McDivitt, J. F., & Leinbach, T. R. (2019). Indonesia. https://www.britannica.com/place/Indonesia

CIA World Factbook. (2019). Indonesia. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/indonesia/

Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia Washington DC. (2017). Facts & Figures. https://www.embassyofindonesia.org/index.php/basic-facts/

Hidayat, R. (2017, June 7). Indonesia counts its islands to protect territory and resources. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-40168981

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2017). Java. Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/place/Java-island-Indonesia

Geographically and administratively, the country is divided into 47 counties. Since 2013, each county is responsible for county legislation and executive functions transferred from the national government.

Geography[1]

Mexico’s territory covers 1.9 million square kilometres of continental surface, 5,127 square kilometres of island surface, and 3.1 million square kilometres of exclusive zone in the oceans, resulting in a total area exceeding five million squared kilometres. The country shares a 5,000-kilometre border in the North with the United States, and in the South, Mexico shares an 871-kilometre border with Guatemala and a 251-kilometre border with Belize. Geopolitically, Mexico is generally considered to be part of North America.

Almost all the country’s territory is on the North American Plate, with small parts of the Baja California Peninsula in the Northwest on the Pacific and Cocos Plates. Situated atop three of the large tectonic plates that constitute the Earth’s surface, Mexico is one of the most seismologically active regions on Earth. The motions of these plates cause earthquakes and volcanic activity.

Mexican Territory gave rise to numerous mountain systems, mainly the Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, Sierra Madre del Sur, and the Cordillera Neovolcánica or Eje Volcánico Transversal (Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt). In the country, much of the volcanic activity is related to the subduction zone formed by the tectonic plates of Rivera and Cocos in contact with the great North American plate and has its volcanic expression in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. These are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, also called the Circum-Pacific Belt that surrounds the Pacific and gives the area a continuous high volcanic activity.

Population density

According to the 2010 Census (INEGI, 2010b), 78% of the total population lived in urban areas and 22% in rural areas (rural populations are defined as localities with less than 2,500 inhabitants, and urban localities as those with total population of 2,500 or above). In 1950 just under 43% of the population in Mexico lived in urban areas, by 1990 it was 71% and by 2010 this figure increased to almost 78% (INEGI, 2010b).

In 2010 the population density at national level was estimated at 57.3 inhabitants per square kilometre, this increased to 61 by 2015. The capital of the country, Mexico City, stands out with the highest density at 5,967 inhabitants/km2, followed by the state of Mexico, with a density of 724 inhabitants/km2. On the other hand, the populations with the lowest number of inhabitants per square kilometre are Baja California Sur with 10 and Durango with 14 inhabitants/km2 (INEGI, 2010b, 2015c).

[1] Data presented is a summary of the following sources: INEGI. 2008. Referencias geográficas y extensión territorial de México, INEGI: Mexico; López de Llergo, R. Principales rasgos geográficos de la República Mexicana. Investigaciones Geográficas, Boletín del Instituto de Geografía, UNAM No. 50, 2003, pp. 26-41; the Mexican Geological System (https://www.sgm.gob.mx/Web/MuseoVirtual/Riesgos-geologicos/Volcanes-de-Mexico.html )

References:

INEGI. (2010b). Principales resultados del Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010. In Principales resultados del Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010. (Vol. 1).

INEGI. (2015c). Mortalidad. Esperanza de vida al nacimiento por entidad federativa.

The Brazilian official language is Brazilian Portuguese. Despite having a single language spoken around the country, there are around 305 geographically isolated indigenous groups speaking 274 different languages (Ethnologue, 2019). According to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the skin colour or race in Brazil are classified as white (45.2%), black (8.9%), yellow (Asians) (0.5%), mixed race (45.1%), and indigenous (0.4%) people (Azevedo, 2015; Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2019k).

 

References:

Azevedo, A. L. M. dos S. (2015). IBGE – Educa | Jovens. IBGE Educa Jovens. https://educa.ibge.gov.br/jovens/conheca-o-brasil/populacao/18319-cor-ou-raca.html

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. (2019k, June 17). Popuação residente, por cor ou raça, segundo a situação do domicílio. https://sidra.ibge.gov.br/Tabela/3175

Ethnologue. (2019). Languages per country.

Key Languages

The Indian Constitution recognises 22 different languages, with Hindi as the official national language (Know India, 2020). As a multilingual country, India has one classical language known as ‘Sanskrit’, 14 modern languages, and 300 other tribal and minority languages (Fase et al., 1992).

Furthermore, most of the speech communities in India have more than one ‘language dialect’ (Fase et al., 1992). States have “linguistic autonomy”, which allows them to have their own official language along with both Hindi (national language) and English as associate languages (Fase et al., 1992, pp. 254).

Ethnic groups

There are three major ethnic groups: Dravidian (predominantly South India), Indo-Aryan (North and Central India), and Mongoloid (predominantly North-Eastern India) (Ali, 2019). In terms of religion, India is a multi-religious country in which Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism are all practiced. However, Hinduism is the dominant religion.

References:

Ali, E. (2019). Ethnic Composition of Indian Population. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332781388_Ethnic_Composition_of_Indian_Population

Fase, W., Jaspaert, K., & Kroon, S. (1992). Maintenance and loss of minority languages. J. Benjamins.

Know India. (2020). India at a Glance. Government of India. Available from https://knowindia.india.gov.in/profile/india-at-a-glance.php

Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian language) is the official language of Indonesia. There are more than 700 local dialects in Indonesia. Other languages spoken are English, Dutch, and local dialects (CIA World Factbook, 2019).

Statistics Indonesia reported that there are more than 1,300 ethnicities in Indonesia, which are classified into 31 ethnic groups. The largest ethnic group in Indonesia is made up by Javanese (40.22%), followed by Sundanese (15.5%) (Na’im & Syaputra, 2011). According to the CIA World Factbook, Malay, Batak, Madurese, Betawi, Minangkabau, Buginese, Bantenese, Banjarese, Acehnese, Dayak, Sasak, and Chinese are other ethnic groups that make up between four to one per cent of the population (CIA World Factbook, 2019).

There are five main religions reported to be practised in Indonesia. The majority of the population, according to 2010 estimates, identifies as Muslim (87.2%) making Indonesia the largest Islamic country, while maintaining its status as a secular country. Other religious groups in the country are Christians (almost 10%; Roman Catholic 2.9%; Protestant 7%), Hindus (1.7%) and other smaller faith groups (CIA World Factbook, 2019).

Indonesia’s culture is a mix of ancient traditions of the early settlers and Western influence brought during the Portuguese and Dutch colonial era (Fisher, 2018). The principles held highly in the Indonesian society stem from life in the village communities, such as the concept of gotong royong (mutual cooperation) and musyawarah (deliberation) in order to reach mufakat (consensus). These concepts are still very relevant and respected across the country and upheld in politics (Kawamura, 2011; Koentjaraningrat, 2009).

References:

CIA World Factbook. (2019). Indonesia. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/indonesia/

Fisher, M. (2018). Indonesia People and Culture: Tradition and Custom. Equinox Publishing.

Kawamura, K. (2011). Consensus and democracy in Indonesia: Musyawarah-Mufakat revisited. IDE Discussion Paper, 308, 1–14.

Koentjaraningrat. (2009). Gotong Rojong: Some Social-anthropological Observations on Practices in Two Villages of Central Java.

Na’im, A., & Syaputra, H. (2011). Kewarganegaraan, suku bangsa, agama dan bahasa sehari-hari penduduk Indonesia hasil sensus penduduk 2010. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.

There are two official languages (English and Swahili) and one national language (Swahili) but most residents in rural areas only speak their native languages, which are about 70.  Kikuyu, Luo, Luhya, Kamba and Kalenjin ethnic groups account for 70% of the nation’s total population (University of Pennsylvania, 2019). The majority of the residents in cities and town centers speak the national language (Swahili) which is spoken in several other countries such as Tanzania, Burundi, Uganda, and Zaire.

References:

University of Pennsylvania. (2019). Kenya Ethnic Groups. https://www.africa.upenn.edu/NEH/kethnic.htm

Spanish is the official language of Mexico but there are also 68 indigenous languages originated in Mexico. The predominant and currently most spoken indigenous languages are Nahuatl (23.4%), Maya (11.6%), Tseltal (7.5%), and Mixteco (7.0%). Those who speak these four languages represent almost 50% of total population that speaks an indigenous language (INEGI, 2015b).

Classification of indigenous populations in national surveys and administrative records is done in two ways. The first asks individuals aged 3 years or above if they speak an indigenous language. In 2015, using this classification, 7.2 million indigenous people were identified, representing 6.6% of the total population of the country (INEGI, 2015b). Although the majority also speaks Spanish, 11.3% of the indigenous population speaks only their indigenous language. The states with the highest proportion of indigenous population are in the South of the country in the states of Oaxaca, Yucatán, and Chiapas, where the indigenous population represents one third of total population (INEGI, 2015b).

Another indicator to classify the indigenous population is self-recognition as indigenous or belonging to an indigenous group, even if an indigenous language is not spoken. Using this indicator, 27.5 million people self-recognise as indigenous or belonging to an indigenous group, which is greater than the number of people who speak an indigenous language (21.5% vs. 6.6% of the population). Another important group comprehends those who consider themselves Afro descendants, which are 1.4 million people, and represent 1.2% of the national population. Belonging to or self-identifying as indigenous or Afro-descendant, is associated with a lower number of years of schooling, especially in women, and limited access to health services (INEGI, 2015b).

References:

INEGI. (2015b). Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, 1, 85–90. http://internet.contenidos.inegi.org.mx/contenidos/Productos/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/nueva_estruc/702825078966.pdf

Population projections between 2010 and 2060 show that the proportion of people aged 14 years and below will decrease from approximately 25% to 15%. In the age-group 15-64 years, this proportion will also diminish from around 68% in 2010 to 60% in 2060. Differently, among people aged 65 and over, the proportion will increase from around 7.3% in 2010 to 25.5% in 2060. However, such figures are remarkably different across the country’s regions (more older people tend to be located in the southern areas and fewer older people tend to be located in the northern areas) due to socioeconomic and health conditions that significantly affect life expectancy rates (see next item about life expectancy) (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2019g). In 2019, the growth rate in Brazil was 0.79% per year. (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2019d).

The total dependency ratio in Brazil means the ratio of the population assumed as economically dependent (those under 15 years old and those over 60 years old) and the age segment assumed to be productive (those between 15 and 59 years old) among a population living in a specific geographical area, in a specific year. High values indicate that the “working-age population” must sustain a large proportion of dependents. (RIPSA, 2019). In other words, this measure is used to show differences in the size of population groups that are assumed not to be in engaged in the labour market and those who are. Currently, the total dependence ratio in Brazil is of around 44.29 (2020) and it is expected to increase to 67.23 by 2060. In people aged 65 and over, the dependency ratio is of 14.18, which is expected to reach 42.62 by 2060 (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2019c).

References:

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. (2019c). IBGE | Projeção da população. https://www.ibge.gov.br/apps/populacao/projecao/index.html

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. (2019d). IBGE divulga as estimativas da população dos municípios para 2019. https://agenciadenoticias.ibge.gov.br/agencia-sala-de-imprensa/2013-agencia-de-noticias/releases/25278-ibge-divulga-as-estimativas-da-populacao-dos-municipios-para-2019

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. (2019g). Population projections.

RIPSA. (2019). Razão de Dependência.

Projections made by the National Commission of Population (NCP, 2019) indicate that the total population is likely to increase from 1211 million to 1518 million between the period 2011-2036. This is a 25% overall increase at a rate of 1% per year (NCP, 2019). The population age groups set to increase during this period are those aged 60 and above (increase from 8.4% in 2011 to 14.9% in 2036), and those between 15-59 years of age (increase from 60.7 in 2011 to 64.9% in 2036) (NCP, 2019). The urban population is also further expected to increase from the 31.8% reported by Census 2011, to 38.6% (NCP, 2019).

References:

National Commission of Population (NCP). (2019). Census of India 2011: Population Projections for India and States 2011-2036. REPORT OF THE TECHNICAL GROUP ON POPULATION PROJECTIONS. National Health Mission. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Available from: https://nhm.gov.in/New_Updates_2018/Report_Population_Projection_2019.pdf

Indonesia is the fourth most populous country after China, India, and the United States, with a population of 262.79 million people in 2018 (CIA World Factbook, 2019), which is predicted to rise to 305.6 million in 2035 (Subdirectorate of Statistical Demographic, 2013). Population growth rate is estimated to be 0.83% (2018) placing Indonesia on rank 127 (out of 234) in world comparison (CIA World Factbook, 2019).

Since the 1970s, the introduction of family planning programmes and the wider access to health care have contributed to a considerable shift in demographics by reducing fertility and increasing life expectancy. Population projections assume that by 2035 fertility rates will have fallen below replacement level (Adioetomo & Mujahid, 2014, pp.2-3).

In 2010, according to Census data, 7.6 percent of the population in Indonesia (18 million people) were aged 60 year or older. Since 1971, the older population of Indonesia has increased by 3.1 per cent. The proportion of older Indonesians is expected to continue to increase by 8.2 per cent until 2035. This would mean that 15.8 per cent of the population would be aged 60 or older by 2035 (Adioetomo & Mujahid, 2014, p.xv).

In addition, looking at the demographic projections among older Indonesians shows that increasing numbers of Indonesians will be very old. Census data suggests that by 2020 the largest proportion of older people will be aged 60 to 64 years. As this group ages, the number of the older old is expected to grow and the number of younger old will start to decline (Adioetomo & Mujahid, 2014, p.15).

The increasing number of older people as a share of the Indonesian population has implications on the expected support ratio. While there were 7.7 older people supported by 100 workers in 2010, the number of dependents (including children) is expected to increase to 44 per 100 workers  (Adioetomo & Mujahid, 2014; Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 2015b).

References:

Adioetomo, S. M., & Mujahid, G. (2014). Indonesia on The Threshold of Population Ageing – UNFPA Indonesia Monograph Series: No.1. (H. Posselt, Ed.; Issue 1). UNFPA Indonesia.

CIA World Factbook. (2019). Indonesia. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/indonesia/

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2015b). National Strategy: Management of Alzheimer and Other Dementia Diseases: Towards Healthy and Productive Older Persons. Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia.

Subdirectorate of Statistical Demographic. (2013). Indonesia Population Projection 2010-2035. BPS – Statistics Indonesia.

Since the mid-20th century, there has been increasing population growth due to high birth rates and decreasing mortality rates. However, after the introduction of family planning programs in 1967 (Kenya was the first Sub-Saharan African country to introduce a national family program), there has been a substantial decrease in birth rates from about 8 children per woman in the late 1970s to an average of 4 children today (Index Mundi, 2019b; Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), 2019) and this is likely to drop down to 2.4 children by 2050 (Fengler, 2010). Despite the intercensal growth rate declining from 2.9% in 2009 to 2.2% in 2019 (Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), 2019), UN projections indicate that Kenya’s population will grow by around 1 million per year and are therefore expected to reach about 85 million by 2050 (Fengler, 2010).

References:

Fengler, W. (2010). Demographic Transition and Growth in Kenya. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/opinion/2010/04/28/demographic-transition-growth-kenya

IndexMundi. (2019b). Kenya Demographics Profile 2018. https://www.indexmundi.com/kenya/demographics_profile.html

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS). (2019). 2019 Kenya Population and Housing Census Volume I : Population By County and Sub-County (Vol. I). Nairobi, Kenya.

The 2017 Revision of the World Population Prospects[1] (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2017a) has estimated that the total population in Mexico will be 147.5 million in the year 2030, 164.3 in 2050, and 151.5 in 2100.

[1] The World Population Prospects present global demographic profiles of the official United Nations population estimates and projections prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. Information from Mexico in the report is obtained through several official data sources such as the Population Census and National Demographic Surveys, among others.

References:

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, P. D. (2017a). World Population Prospects. Key findings & advance tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP/248. https://population.un.org/wpp/publications/files/wpp2017_keyfindings.pdf

The total fertility rate in Brazil in 2019 was 1.77 and this is expected to decrease to 1.68 by 2050. The crude natality and mortality rates in Brazil in 2019 were 14.20 and 6.51, respectively. By 2050, mortality rate is expected to increase to 10.69% and natality rate is expected to decrease to 9.89%. In 2019, mortality rate in children under 2 years old was 11.94%, and this is expected to reduce to 7.24% by 2050 (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2002, 2019f).

The ageing index in Brazil is defined as the number of people aged 60 years and over per every 100 people under 15 years of age, in a population living in a geographical space in a determined year. Advanced values for this index indicate the population is at advanced stages of the demographic transition. The ageing index in Brazil is expected to increase over the years, from 29.55 in 2010 to 173.47 in 2060 (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2020; Interagency Health Information Network, 2008). The median age of the population in 2000 was 24.2 years (23.5 years for men and 24.9 years for women). By 2018, median age raised to 32.6 years (the highest median age was in Rio Grande do Sul (35.9), and the lowest in was in Acre (24.9) (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2002, 2019f).

Life expectancy at birth is also increasing in Brazil, with this being 73.3 for men and 80.2 for women in 2020. By 2060, these are expected to reach 77.9 for men and 84.2 for women. However, life expectancy rates are remarkably different across the country’s regions. For example, the life expectancy for both males and females were 79.6 in Santa Catarina (in the South of Brazil) in 2018 and are expected to increase to 84.5 years in 2060. Differently, in 2018 life expectancy at birth for both genders in the state of Maranhão (in the Northeast of Brazil) was 71.1 and is projected to be 78.2 years in 2060 (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2002, 2019f).

References:

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. (2002). Tendencia demográfica.

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. (2019f). Population projections.

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. (2020). Tabela 4492: Pessoas de 18 anos ou mais de idade que referem diagnóstico médico de diabetes, total, percentual e coeficiente de variação, por condição em relação à força de trabalho na semana de referência e situação do domicilio. SIDRA. https://sidra.ibge.gov.br/tabela/4492

Interagency Health Information Network (Ed.). (2008). Indicadores básicos para a saúde no Brasil: Conceitos e aplicações (2a edição). Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, Escritório Regional para as Américas da Organização Mundial da Saúde. http://tabnet.datasus.gov.br/tabdata/livroidb/2ed/indicadores.pdf

Life expectancy

According to the World Health Statistics report (World Health Organization, 2018), life expectancy in India is estimated to be 68.8 years on average, with 67.4 years for males and 70.3 years for females. According to the Elderly in India report (National Statistical Office, 2021), during the period between 2014-2018, the life expectancy at birth was 70.7 years for females and 68.2 years for males. Whereas the sex ratio for elderly population is projected to be 1065 females per 1000 males in 2021 (National Statistical Office, 2021). This is higher than the previous decade, wherein the sex ratio for the elderly population was reported as 1028 females per 1000 males (National Statistical Office, 2021). The report also states that the overall life expectancy has increased in both, rural and urban area in India, with life expectancy at birth having increased from 48 years (1970-1975) to 68 years (2014-2018) in rural areas and from 58.9 years (1970-1975) to 72.6 years (2014-2018) in urban areas.

Life expectancy at different ages

Life expectancy at age 0, 60, and 70 between the period 2014-2018 was reported to be 69.4 years, 18.2 years, and 11.6 years, respectively (National Statistical Office, 2021).

Median age of the population

As per the United Nation’s Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the median age of the population in India in 2015 was estimated to be 26.8 years (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2019b).

Total fertility rate

As per the National Family Health Survey-5 2019-21 (International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), 2021), the fertility rate (children per woman) has dropped to 2 from the 2.2 reported in 2015-16.

Total population aged 65 years and above

According to the World Bank (2020c), in 2020, the percentage of the total population aged 65 years and above was 7%.

Total dependency ratio

The World Population Prospects (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, 2019a) estimate that in 2015, the total dependency ratio (ratio of population aged 0-14 and 65 plus per 100 population 15-64) in India was 51.6 and they projected that this would decrease to 47.5 by 2050.

Old-age dependency ratio

The Elderly in India report (National Statistical Office, 2021) provides the old-age dependency ratio (number of people 60 and above per 100 working age population (15-59 years)) trends in India. According to the report the old age dependency ratio rose from 10.9% in 1961 to 14.2% in 2011. Population projections estimate that there will be a further increase concerning the old age dependency ratio to 15.7% and 20.1% in 2021 and 2031, respectively (National Statistical Office, 2021). An earlier Elderly in India report (Borah et al., 2016) states that there is an increasing trend in the gap between male and female old-age dependency ratio, which was reported in 2011 as 13.6% and 14.9%, respectively. As per the projections for 2021, this increasing trend in the gap has been consistent, with old-age dependency ratio for male and female estimated as 14.8% and 16.7%, respectively (National Statistical Office, 2021). With respect to urban and rural areas, the old age dependency ratio according to Census 2011 was 15.1% and 12.4% respectively (Borah et al., 2016; National Statistical Office, 2021). The significant difference in old-age dependency ratios between urban and rural areas has been attributed to the relatively higher proportion of working age population living in urban areas (Borah et al., 2016; National Statistical Office, 2021).

States variations

State-wise variations in elderly population exist. According to the 2011 Census, Kerala (12.6%), Goa (11.2%), and Tamil Nadu (10.4%) report the largest proportion of the elderly in their population (Borah et al., 2016). Whereas Dadra & Nagar Haveli (4.0 %), Arunachal Pradesh (4.6 %), and Meghalaya (4.7 %) report the least proportion of elderly individuals in their population in 2011 (Borah et al., 2016). In addition, population projections for 2021 estimate that the proportions of the elderly have reached 16.5% and 13.6% in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, respectively (National Statistical Office, 2021).

Future projections

It is projected that the Indian population aged 60 and over will increase from 8% in 2015 to 19% in 2050 (United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), 2017). By the end of the century, it is estimated that 34% of the total Indian population will comprise of elderly people (aged 60+) (UNFPA, 2017).

References:

Borah, H., Shukla, P., Jain, K., Kimar, S., Prakash, C., & Gajrana, K. (2016). Elderly in India 2016.Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India.

International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS). (2021). National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) 2019-21 India. Mumbai. http://rchiips.org/nfhs/NFHS-5_FCTS/India.pdf

National Statistical Office. (2021). Elderly in India. National Statistical Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Government of India. Available from: https://www.mospi.gov.in/documents/213904/301563/Elderly%20in%20India%2020211627985144626.pdf/a4647f03-bca1-1ae2-6c0f-9fc459dad64c

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). (2017). ‘Caring for Our Elders: Early Responses’ – India Ageing Report – 2017. UNFPA, New Delhi, India. Available from: https://india.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/India%20Ageing%20Report%20-%202017%20%28Final%20Version%29.pdf

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019a). World Population Prospects 2019 – Data Query. Available, from https://population.un.org/wpp/DataQuery/

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019b). World Population Prospects 2019, Online Edition. Rev. 1.

World Health Organization. (2018). World Health Statistics Monitoring Health for SDGs. https://doi.org/Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272596/9789241565585-eng.pdf

World Bank (2020c). Proportion of population aged 65 and above. Available from: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS

In the last four decades, average life expectancy has increased dramatically, from 45 years in 1971 to 73.2 years in 2018 (70.6 for males and 76.6 for females) (Adioetomo & Mujahid, 2014; CIA World Factbook, 2019). However, the ageing pattern of Indonesia is complex. Indonesia defines older people as people aged 60 or over (Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan RI, 2014).

In provinces, where family planning policies showed greatest success, such as in East Java, the proportion of older people is higher than in other parts of the country. In comparison, in East Java the proportion of older people as part of total population growth is estimated to increase by over 24 per cent, while in East Nusa Tenggara older people are only expected to contribute 17.4 per cent to population growth (Adioetomo & Mujahid, 2014, p.xi). The largest proportion of older people in Indonesia (57%) can be found in the three most populated provinces East Java, Central Java, and West Java (over 47% of the Indonesia population). Projections based on 2010 Census data suggest that the proportion of older people will increase across all 33 provinces. This data does not include projections for the 34th province, North Kalimantan, which was only established in 2015 (Legislation no. 20/2012). The provinces, where older people make up a larger share of the population may have a higher prevalence of dementia, as ageing and non-communicable diseases are the main risk factors of reduced cognitive function (Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 2015b).

Furthermore, differences in the proportion of older people can also be found between urban and rural areas. Data from the 2010 Census suggest that a greater proportion of older people (8.7%) lives in rural than in urban (6.5%) areas and people in rural areas are also likely to be older than those in urban areas. Finally, an urban-rural difference can also be found for potential support ratios, suggesting a lower ratio for urban (11.0) than rural (16.1) areas according to Census 2010 data. This difference is likely to be related to in-country migration patterns, where younger people move to urban areas for education and employment, while older people move back to rural areas for retirement (Adioetomo & Mujahid, 2014, pp.22-26).

Based on the 2010 census, it was predicted that the proportion of older people (65+) will increase from 5.0% in 2010 to 5.4% by 2015, 6.2%  by 2020 and reach 10.6% by 2050. However, it can be difficult to compare this data to information from other sources as in Indonesia ‘older people’ are defined as people aged 60 or above. Data for people aged 60 and older is more commonly available.

The dependency ratio reflects the ratio between the number of people requiring support (children and older people) to those of working age. Since 1971 the total dependency ratio for Indonesia has been declining but the curve is expected to stall over the next decade. The total dependency ratio in 2015 was estimated to be 49.2 (CIA World Factbook, 2019). However, an increasing old-age dependency ratio is likely to offset this trend after 2030. In 2015, the old-age dependency ratio was estimated to be 7.6, but by 2035 this ratio is expected to increase to 15.6 (Adioetomo & Mujahid, 2014, p.8; CIA World Factbook, 2019).

Male life expectancy at birth (70.6 years) is considerably lower than female life expectancy (76.6 years, 2018 estimate). In terms of overall life expectancy Indonesia ranks 142th in the world (CIA World Factbook, 2019).

In the last four decades, life expectancy has increased dramatically, from 45 years in 1971 to 73.2 years in 2018 (Adioetomo & Mujahid, 2014; CIA World Factbook, 2019).

The median age of the Indonesian population in 2018 was estimated to be 30 years. Males were found to be slightly younger (29.9 years median age) than females (31.1 years median age) (CIA World Factbook, 2019). Future projections suggest that median age will increase to 33.7 years by 2035 (Adioetomo & Mujahid, 2014, p.9).

Total fertility rate in Indonesia in 2016 was estimated to be 2.4. This is a considerable decrease from an estimated 5.7 in 1960 (World Bank, 2018a).

References:

Adioetomo, S. M., & Mujahid, G. (2014). Indonesia on The Threshold of Population Ageing – UNFPA Indonesia Monograph Series: No.1. (H. Posselt, Ed.; Issue 1). UNFPA Indonesia.

CIA World Factbook. (2019). Indonesia. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/indonesia/

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2015b). National Strategy: Management of Alzheimer and Other Dementia Diseases: Towards Healthy and Productive Older Persons. Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia.

Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan RI. (2014). Situasi dan analisis lanjut usia (pp. 1–7).

Subdirectorate of Statistical Demographic. (2013). Indonesia Population Projection 2010-2035. BPS – Statistics Indonesia.

World Bank. (2018a). Fertility rate, total (births per woman) – Indonesia. World Development Indicators. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.TFRT.IN?locations=ID

Age distribution

3.07% of the population is above 65 years while the majority (38.71%) is below 15 years. Those aged between 15 to 24 years, 25 to 54 years and 55 to 64 years constitute 20.45%, 33.75% and 4.01% of the population respectively (Central Intelligence Agency, 2019).

Median age

The median age in Kenya is about 18 years (World Health Rankings, 2018).

Life expectancy at birth

Life expectancy at birth is 66.7 years  (64.4 years for males and 68.9 years for females) (World Health Rankings, 2018).

Total fertility rate

Fertility rate of 2.98 (World Health Rankings, 2018) due to high fertility, early marriages and still a continuing high unmet need for family planning.

References:

Central Intelligence Agency. (2019). The World Factbook: Africa – Kenya. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/kenya/

World Health Rankings. (2018). Health Profile: Kenya. https://www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/country-health-profile/kenya

According to INEGI (INEGI, 2010a), life expectancy in Mexico in the year 2010 was 77 years for women and 71 for men, while 2016 estimates show an increment to 78 and 73 years for women and men, respectively. There are important differences by states, in parallel with socioeconomic development in the country with northern states showing notably higher life expectancy than southern states. For example, in northern states like Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Baja California life expectancy in 2015 was 76.4, 75.7 and 76 years, in southern states like Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca was 72.8, 72.9 and 73, respectively (INEGI, 2015c). The latest World Population Prospects (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2017b) estimate that by the year 2050 life expectancy in Mexico will be 82.6 years, 84.2 years for women and 81 for men. By 2100 this is expected to increase to and 88.9 years, with 90.1 and 87.7, for men and women, respectively (Table 1).

Table 1. Life expectancy In México for several years and projections to 2100

1950 1970 1990 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2030 2050 2075 2100
Life expectancy at birth 50.7 60.3 69.8 73.7 74.9 75.7 76.5 77.4 79.2 82.6 86.1 88.9
Male life expectancy at birth 48.9 58.2 66.8 71.3 72.4 73.3 74.0 75.0 77.0 81.0 84.9 87.7
Female life expectancy at birth 52.5 62.5 73 76.1 77.4 78.1 78.9 79.8 81.4 84.2 87.2 90.1
Life expectancy at age 15 49.3 54.3 58.8 61.5 62.1 62.9 63.5 64.2 65.6 68.5 71.7 74.3
Life expectancy at age 65 12.6 14.8 16.5 17.4 17.7 18.5 18.9 19.3 20.1 21.8 23.9 25.8

Source: (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2017b)

References:

INEGI. (2010a). Banco de indicadores.

INEGI. (2015c). Mortalidad. Esperanza de vida al nacimiento por entidad federativa.

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, P. D. (2017b). World population prospects: the 2017 revision. Volume II: Demographic Profiles, 2, 1–883. https://population.un.org/wpp/publications/Files/WPP2017_Volume-II-Demographic-Profiles.pdf

With regards to within country migration, in 2010, around 35% of the population did not live in the city where they were born, and 14.5% (26 million) lived in another state. The number of migrants is bigger in Southern areas, whilst most people in Northern areas are originally from there. São Paulo (19.4%), Rio de Janeiro (13,1%), Paraná (16.3%) and Goiás (26.6%) had the highest proportions of people who were not originally from there. Minas Gerais (18.4%), Bahia (22.1%), São Paulo (5.8%) and Paraná (21.1%) had the largest number of people who emigrated to another state (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2010b, 2010a).

With regards to international migration, in 2010, Brazil had received around 268,500 migrants from other countries, 86.7% more than in 2000 (143,600). Of the total of international migrants, 174.6 thousand (65.0%) were Brazilians returning to Brazil. Most of the migrants were coming from the United States (51.9 thousand) and Japan (41.4 thousand). (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2010b, 2010a).

Until 1980, outmigration in Brazil used to be rare, with more people emigrating to Paraguay. In the recent years, outmigration from Brazil has become more common, frequently occurring to the United States (around 750,000 people), Paraguay (350,000), and Japan (250,000). Other countries receiving Brazilians are Portugal (circa of 65,000 people), Italy (65,000), Swiss (45,000), and the UK (30,000). Around other 500,000 Brazilians are living abroad in Europe and other continents (Committee on foreign affairs and national defense, 2004).

References:

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. (2010a). Proporcao de migrantes entre grandes regioes, UFs e municipios. https://brasilemsintese.ibge.gov.br/populacao/proporcao-de-migrantes-entre-grandes-regioes-ufs-e-municipios.html

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. (2010b). Vamos conhecer o Brasil. Nosso povo: Migracao e deslocamento.

Committee on foreign affairs and national defense. (2004). Brasileiros no Exterior. Portal da Câmara dos Deputados.

 

Internal migration

As per Census 2011, there were 450 million internal migrants in India, which comprise of 37% of the total population (Rajan and Bhagat, 2021). The main directions of migration reported by an earlier NSS report (2007-2008) were rural to rural (62%), urban to urban (13%) and urban to rural (5%) (Rajan and Bhagat, 2021). The states that receive the most migration are Maharashtra, Delhi, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Kerala, and Karnataka as per the Census 2011 (Rajan and Bhagat, 2021).

External migration

According to the World Migration Report (International Organization for Migration, 2019), Indians account for the largest proportion of individuals living outside of their country, with 17.5 million international migrants originating from India. The largest corridor of migration from India was reported to be to the United Arab Emirates in 2019 (International Organization for Migration, 2019).

References:

International Organization for Migration. (2019). World Migration Report. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Rajan, I.S., Bhagat, B.R (2021). Internal migration in India: Integrating migration with development and urbanization policies. Thematic Working Group on Internal Migration and Urbanization of the Global Knowledge Partnership on Migration and Development (KNOMAD) Available from: https://www.knomad.org/sites/default/files/2021-02/Policy%20Brief%20-%20Internal%20Migrationand%20Urbanization%20-%20India%20Policy%20Brief%2012%20Feb%202021.pdf

Migration from Indonesia to other countries has a long history, with records stemming from Dutch and Japanese colonial times (Raharto, 2007). In the colonial era, beginning 1890, the Dutch government started to source workers from the Dutch East Indies for labour in the plantations of Suriname in South America. After Independence, a Ministry of Labour (later changed to Ministry of Manpower) was established to manage the placements of Indonesian migrant workers abroad (BNP2TKI, 2011). Between 2016 to 2018, there were more than 760,000 Indonesian migrant workers assigned to different countries for various types of jobs, including nurses and care workers (Pusat Penelitian Pengembangan dan Informasi BNP2TKI, 2019).

According to the CIA World Factbook the net migration rate in 2017 was -1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population. This suggests that more Indonesians are emigrating than foreigners are immigrating, but within country migration also plays an important role (CIA World Factbook, 2019). In 2013, the five main emigration destinations for Indonesians were Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bangladesh, and Singapore. The UNICEF migration profile for Indonesia suggests that crude net migration has risen slightly from -0.20 in the period 1995 to 2000 to -0.56 in 2010-2015. Future projections suggest that crude migration will stay relatively constant between 2015-2020 (-0.53) and 2045-2050 (-0.44) (United Nations DESA-Population Division and UNICEF, 2014). Among immigrants, the majority were reported to come from China, the Republic of Korea, the UK, Timor-Leste, and Singapore.

In-country migration also plays a considerable role in Indonesia. These often-long-established patterns of migration play a role in the varied ageing patterns observed across Indonesia (Adioetomo & Mujahid, 2014 p.30; Ananta et al., 1997). As in the case of international migration patterns, within-country migration patterns were also influenced by colonial rule, which established transmigration programmes from Java to the outer islands. This policy was maintained after Indonesian independence to move landless people from highly populated areas to less populated areas. This pattern came to a halt following the fall of the New Order (Sukamdi & Mujahid, 2015, p.5).

While some ethnic groups are known for their migration patterns, overall internal migration has been found to slow down between 1995/2000 and 2005/2010 according to Census data. At the same time, those who migrated internally were found to move further away (Sukamdi & Mujahid, 2015, pp. 12-13).

The largest proportion of migrants were aged 15 to 34 years. Among older persons, the number of people migrating were generally low but more women (52.1%) than men were found to migrate at older age. Sukamdi and Muhajid (2015) suggest that women are more likely to follow their adult children when widowed or divorced while men are more likely to re-marry. The greater number of widowed women migrating may also be related to female longevity (Sukamdi & Mujahid, 2015).

References:

Adioetomo, S. M., & Mujahid, G. (2014). Indonesia on The Threshold of Population Ageing – UNFPA Indonesia Monograph Series: No.1. (H. Posselt, Ed.; Issue 1). UNFPA Indonesia.

Ananta, A., Anwar, E. N., & Suzenti, D. (1997). Some Economic Demographic Aspects of “Ageing” in Indonesia. In Indonesia Assessment: Population and Human Resources (pp. 181–203). Australian National University and Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

BNP2TKI. (2011). Sejarah Penempatan TKI Hingga BNP2TKI. http://www.bnp2tki.go.id/frame/9003/Sejarah-Penempatan-TKI-Hingga-BNP2TKI

CIA World Factbook. (2019). Indonesia. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/indonesia/

Pusat Penelitian Pengembangan dan Informasi BNP2TKI. (2019). Data Penempatan dan Perlindungan TKI Periode Bulan Desember Tahun 2018. http://www.bnp2tki.go.id/uploads/data/data_14-01-2019_043946_Laporan_Pengolahan_Data_BNP2TKI_2018_-_DESEMBER.pdf

Raharto, A. (2017). Pengambilan Keputusan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia Perempuan untuk Bekerja di Luar Negeri: Kasus Kabupaten Cilacap (Decision making to work overseas among Indonesian women labor migrants: the case of Cilacap district). Jurnal Kependudukan Indonesia, 12(1), 39–54. http://ejurnal.kependudukan.lipi.go.id/index.php/jki/article/view/275/pdf

Sukamdi, & Mujahid, G. (2015). Internal Migration in Indonesia. UNFPA Indonesia Monograph Series No.3, xii, 90.

United Nations DESA-Population Division and UNICEF. (2014). Migration Profile – Common Set of Indicators. DESA-Population Division and UNICEF. https://esa.un.org/miggmgprofiles/indicators/indicators.htm

Kenya is the second biggest refugee-hosting country in Africa with 259,100 (54.5% of registered refugees) originating from Somalia (UNHCR, 2019) and others from the East and the Horn of Africa due to continued conflict and displacement. The key drivers for Kenyan emigrants appear to be access to employment, education and other opportunities with top destinations being the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and other African countries, particularly the United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda (International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2015).

References:

International Organization for Migration (IOM). (2015). Migration in Kenya: A country profile 2015. Nairobi, Kenya. https://publications.iom.int/books/migration-kenya-country-profile-2015

UNHCR. (2019). Kenya: Registered refugees and asylum-seekers. https://www.unhcr.org/ke/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/04/Kenya-Infographics_March-2019.pdf

 

Mexico has a long history of migration patterns including internal and international migration. Internal migration, defined as the displacement of the population within the same territory (within a municipality or federative entity) (INEGI, 2010b), continues to be an important demographic factor in Mexico. According to the 2015 Intercensal Survey (INEGI, 2015b), it is estimated that 17.4% of the residents of Mexico were born in a different entity (state, municipality, or locality) from the one they reside in or were born abroad. There are important differences among states, for example, this percentage in the state of Quintana Roo reaches 54.1% of total population in the state, followed by Baja California with 44.1%. On the other hand, the state of Chiapas presents the lowest percentage of residents reporting being born elsewhere at 3.4% of total population, followed by Guerrero with 4.9%.

Regarding international migration history, starting in the 1940s with the Bracero Program and most importantly from the 1970s onward was largely one of flows to the United States, and today, Mexico is one of the countries with the largest accumulated outwards migration in the world. More recently, Mexico has become an important transit migration country, mainly by Central Americans headed to the U.S. some of which, while they wait on their application/obtaining refugee status in the US, choose to settle temporarily or permanently within the country (INEGI, 2010b).

In 2015, just over one million people living in Mexico reported being born in another country, which is equivalent to 0.84% of the total population of the country. Showing an increasing trend in foreign immigration, this percentage has doubled in the last fifteen years (INEGI, 2015b). According to the International Migration Outlook 2017 (OECD, 2017b) immigration to Mexico increased sharply over the past two decades, while the inter-census survey (INEGI, 2015b) indicates that the number of foreign-born population has reached the level of one million, double the number than in 2000. In 2015, 34,500 foreigners were issued a new permanent resident permit, and it is estimated that 377,000 Central Americans migrants transited through Mexico in route to the USA (OECD, 2017b).

References:

INEGI. (2010b). Principales resultados del Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010. In Principales resultados del Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010. (Vol. 1).

INEGI. (2015b). Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, 1, 85–90. http://internet.contenidos.inegi.org.mx/contenidos/Productos/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/nueva_estruc/702825078966.pdf

OECD. (2017b). “Mexico” in International Migration Outlook 2017. https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/migr_outlook-2017-29-en