06.02.12. What risk factors have been associated with dementia? | Indonesia

06.02.12. What risk factors have been associated with dementia? | Indonesia

20 Apr 2022

The national dementia strategy document mentioned several risk factors which can affect brain health negatively over the life course. These including congenital anomaly, genetics, smoking, alcohol, malnutrition, non-communicable and communicable diseases, metabolic diseases, vascular, and neurological disorders (Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 2015b).

Surveymeter’s study in Bali shows that 47.6% of respondents diagnosed with dementia reported a comorbidity with stroke, followed by 40% with cancer, 38.8% heart disease, and 34.6% hypertension. However, the study did not investigate the association between these possible risk factors with dementia (Suriastini et al., 2018). Other studies in different populations have also reported the association with hypertension (Fitri & Rambe, 2018), diabetes (Kayo et al., 2012), and dyslipidemia (Maryam & Sahar, 2019). Moreover, according to Turana et al., 2019, the highest estimated population-attributable risks are low education, smoking, and physical inactivity (Turana et al., 2019).


Fitri, F. I., & Rambe, A. S. (2018). Correlation between hypertension and cognitive function in elderly. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 125(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/125/1/012177

Kayo, A. R., Wimala, A. R., Angela, N., & Rashid, I. binti A. (2012). Random blood glucose level as predictor of cognitive impairment in elderly. Universa Medicina, 31(2), 131–138. https://doi.org/10.1805/UnivMed.2012.v31.131-138

Maryam, R. S., & Sahar, J. (2019). Determining factors of dementia in elderly individuals residing in the special capital region of Jakarta. Enfermería Clínica.

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2015b). National Strategy: Management of Alzheimer and Other Dementia Diseases: Towards Healthy and Productive Older Persons. Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia.

Suriastini, Turana, Y., Sukadana, W., Sikoki, B., Witoelar, F., Lesmana, C. B. J., Mulyanto, E. D., Hermoko, R., & Anandari, G. A. A. A. (2018). Menggugah Lahirnya Kebijakan Kelanjutusiaan Menggugah Lahirnya Kebijakan Kelanjutusiaan.

Turana, Y., Tengkawan, J., Suswanti, I., Suharya, D., Riyadina, W., & Pradono, J. (2019). Primary Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease in Indonesia. International Journal of Aging Research, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.28933/ijoar-2019-06-2506