06.02.01. What is the estimated prevalence and incidence of dementia and the source of these estimates? | Indonesia

06.02.01. What is the estimated prevalence and incidence of dementia and the source of these estimates? | Indonesia

19 Apr 2022

The earliest report estimated that the dementia prevalence in Indonesia comes from a joint report of ADI Asia-Pacific members in 2005. The report stated a prevalence of 606,100. The same source reported an incidence of 191,400, which was predicted to increase to 314,100 by 2020 and to 932,000 by 2050 (Access Economics, 2006).

 The most recent estimates based on regional prediction published in the revised World Alzheimer Report 2015 stated that in 2015, approximately 1.2 million people in Indonesia were living with dementia and this number was expected to increase up to almost 4 million by 2050 (Prince et al., 2015).

Other studies identified reported regional dementia prevalence rates.

Yesufu (2009, p.12) reported a dementia prevalence of 4.1% among those aged 60 and older. The research further found that the prevalence of people living with Alzheimer’s Disease was 3.1% in the same age group, while that of all other dementias (‘including Vascular Dementia, possible secondary dementia, and other non-assessed sub-types) was estimated to be 5.4% (age range 52-98 years)’. This research had been conducted in Sumedang (West Java) and Borobodu (Central Java) as well as urban sites in Central and South Jakarta (Northwest Java).

Hogervorst (2011, p.8), studying similar areas to Yesufu (the study was conducted in West and Central Java as well as at an urban site in Jakarta) and who aimed to validate two short dementia screening tests in Indonesia reported a ‘suspected dementia prevalence’ of 8% among those aged 60 and 65 years. The author reports that they found a very high rate (16-21%) possible dementia cases in Borobudur, Central Java, which raised the overall estimated prevalence rate.

Surveymeter, an independent research institution, investigated the prevalence of dementia in the province of Yogyakarta (Suriastini et al., 2016) and Bali (Suriastini et al., 2018). Yogyakarta is located in Java, which is the most densely-populated island in Indonesia (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2017), and currently is the province with the highest percentage of older people among all provinces in Indonesia  (Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan RI, 2017). Surveymeter’s data from Yogyakarta showed a dementia prevalence of 20.1% (Suriastini et al., 2016). No data regarding incidence in Yogyakarta were found.

A similar study conducted in 2018 in the province of Bali showed a higher prevalence of dementia at 32.16% (Suriastini et al., 2018). This high prevalence might be related to the proportion of older population in this province. Among provinces outside of Java Island, Bali has the highest number of older people outside of Java (Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan RI, 2017). There were no data found regarding incidence in this province either. Surveymeter’s data is based on household surveys in the province of Yogyakarta (Suriastini et al., 2016) and Bali (Suriastini et al., 2018). Both studies were conducted using structured questionnaire and instruments of cognitive screening and functional status assessment such as MMSE, ADL and IADL for both the patients and caregivers in villages or sub-districts.


Access Economics. (2006). Demensia Di Kawasan Asia Pasifik: Sudah Ada Wabah. https://www.alz.co.uk/research/files/apreportindonesian.pdf

Hogervorst, E. (2011). Validation of two short dementia screening tests in Indonesia. IN: Jacobsen, S.R. (ed.) Vascular Dementia: Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment, New York: Nova Science, pp. 235-256.

Prince, M., Wimo, A., Guerchet, M., Ali, G.-C., Wu, Y.-T., Prina, M., & Alzheimer’s Disease International. (2015). World Alzheimer Report 2015 The Global Impact of Dementia: An analysis of prevalence, incidence, cost and trends. https://www.alz.co.uk/research/WorldAlzheimerReport2015.pdf

Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan RI. (2017). Analisis Lansia di Indonesia.

Suriastini, Turana, Y., Sukadana, W., Sikoki, B., Witoelar, F., Lesmana, C. B. J., Mulyanto, E. D., Hermoko, R., & Anandari, G. A. A. A. (2018). Menggugah Lahirnya Kebijakan Kelanjutusiaan Menggugah Lahirnya Kebijakan Kelanjutusiaan.

Suriastini, Turana, Y., Witoelar, F., Supraptilah, B., Wicaksono, T., & Dwi, E. (2016). Policy Brief Angka Prevalensi Demensia: Perlu Perhatian Kita Semua. SurveyMETER, Maret, 1–4.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2017). Java. Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/place/Java-island-Indonesia

Yesufu, A. O. (2009). Demographic and modifiable risk factors for age related cognitive impairment and possible dementia. Loughborough: Loughborough University