DESK REVIEWS | 09.01.01. Disability grants, pensions, old age grants, and any other form of cash benefits
DESK REVIEW | 09.01.01. Disability grants, pensions, old age grants, and any other form of cash benefits
There is the Continuous Cash Benefit (Benefício de Prestação Continuada – BPC) which is an income transfer benefit for people of any age with disability or for people aged 65 and over with long term cognitive or physical impairments. The value of the BPC reflects one national minimum wage. In order to receive this benefit, the monthly per capita household income must be equivalent to up to ¼ of the value of the monthly national minimum wage (Rodrigues, 2019a).
Rodrigues, A. (2019a). Benefício de Prestação Continuada—BPC [Capa]. MINISTÉRIO DA CIDADANIA Secretaria Especial do Desenvolvimento Social.
There are no social protection mechanisms that are solely dedicated to persons with dementia, but there are recognised schemes for persons with disabilities and senior citizens.
The implementation of the Right of Persons with Disabilities Act (2016) is carried out largely through schemes run by the Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (DPED), Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MSJE). Two of the major schemes that influence the lives of persons with disabilities living in rural areas are summarised in Table 1 (Gupta, Witte and Meershoek, 2021). However, the implementation of these schemes has been found to be low in rural areas (Gupta, Witte and Meershoek, 2021).
Table 1. Overview of Few Major Disability Schemes
|Assistance to Disabled Persons for Purchase/Fitting of Aids and Appliances (ADIP)
|Makes assistive devices including those needed to meet activities of daily living for low income families (Gupta,Witte and Meershoek, 2021).|
|District Disability Rehabilitation Centres (DDRCs)||Establishment of centres that provide comprehensive rehabilitation services (Gupta,Witte and Meershoek, 2021).|
Source: (Gupta, Witte and Meershoek, 2021).
Furthermore, the National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) under the Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme provides pension to persons aged 18 and above with a disability level of 80% an amount of Rs 300 per month (Vikaspedia, n.d.-c; Ministry of Rural Development, 2014). Persons above the age of 80 receive Rs 500 per month (Vikaspedia, n.d.-c; Ministry of Rural Development, 2014).
In addition, the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (2005) (NREGA) mentioned in Part 1 Section IV on Social Protection is also applicable to persons with disabilities residing in rural areas.
Old age grants, pension or assistance schemes
These are schemes under the National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP), which can be availed if the applicant falls under the BPL category as per the Government of India (Vikaspedia, n.d.-c; Ministry of Rural Development, 2014).
Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS): Provides senior citizens over the age of 60 with no other sources of income and who fall below the poverty line with a monthly pension of Rs 200 (60+ years of age) and 500 (80+ years of age) (Vikaspedia, n.d.-c; Ministry of Rural Development, 2014).
Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme (IGNWPS): Provides the widowed, living below the poverty line, with an amount of Rs 300 per month (Vikaspedia, n.d.-c; Ministry of Rural Development, 2014). Persons above the age of 80 will receive Rs 500 per month (Vikaspedia, n.d.-c; Ministry of Rural Development, 2014).
National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS): Provides a lumpsump of Rs 20,000 to a household in which the main breadwinner has passed away (Vikaspedia, n.d.-c; Ministry of Rural Development, 2014).
Annapurna scheme: Provides Rs 10kg of food grains per month free of cost to senior citizens living below the poverty line that are nor receiving pension under IGNOAPS (Vikaspedia, n.d.-c; Ministry of Rural Development, 2014).
The amount received under the pension schemes vary across states as state governments are urged to contribute at least an equal amount to the central government amounts mentioned above (Ministry of Rural Development, 2014).
Gupta, S., de Witte, L. P., & Meershoek, A. (2021). Dimensions of invisibility: insights into the daily realities of persons with disabilities living in rural communities in India. Disability &Society, 36(8), 1285-1307.
Ministry of Rural Development (2014). National Social Assistance Programme: Programme Guidelines. Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. Available from: https://nsap.nic.in/Guidelines/nsap_guidelines_oct2014.pdf
Vikaspedia. (n.d.c). National Social Assistance Programme. Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology. Government of India. Available from: https://vikaspedia.in/social-welfare/rural-poverty-alleviation-1/schemes/national-social-assistance-programme#:~:text=National%20Family%20Benefit%20Scheme%20(NFBS)%20%3A%20Rs.,the%20family%20eligible%20for%20assistance
The government of Kenya, through the National Development Fund for Persons with Disabilities, has set aside funds for persons with disabilities including cognitive disabilities through cash transfers (National Council for Persons with Disabilities (NCPWD), 2019). People who qualify for this cash transfer are those who are from extremely poor households and residing in a particular location for more than a year but are not enrolled in any other cash transfer program (Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, 2019a). The transfer value per month for each eligible person is 2,000 Kenya shillings (20USD).
- According to the National Social Security Fund (NSSF) act no.45 of 2013, subsection 38, a member is entitled to invalidity pension if he/she suffers physical or mental disability of a permanent nature as certified by a medical board established under the Act and has made at least 36 monthly contributions immediately preceding the date of invalidity (Republic of Kenya, 2013). Retirement benefits are paid from the retirement age of 60 years with earlier retirement being at age 50 (Republic of Kenya, n.d.).
- The government of Kenya provides Older Persons Cash Transfer (OPCT) for a Kenyan who is above 70 years and residing in a particular location for more than a year but neither receiving pension nor enrolled in any other cash transfer program (Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, 2019a). The transfer value per month for each eligible person is 2,000 Kenya shillings (20USD).
Ministry of Labour and Social Protection. (2019a). FAQs. https://laboursp.go.ke/faqs/
National Council for Persons with Disabilities (NCPWD). (2019). National Development Fund. https://ncpwd.go.ke/ndfpwd-funding-summary/
Republic of Kenya. (2013). The National Social Security Fund Act, 2013 No. 45 of 2013. 27 December. Nairobi, Kenya. http://kenyalaw.org/kl/fileadmin/pdfdownloads/Acts/NationalSocialSecurityFundAct2013.pdf
Republic of Kenya. (n.d.). Legal provisions of the Pensions Act, Cap 189. The National Treasury Pnesions Department. Nairobi, Kenya. https://www.treasury.go.ke/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/Pensions-Act-CAP-189.pdf
There is one program at the Federal level of government that supports people with disabilities called the Pension Program for the Welfare of People with Disabilities. However, potential beneficiaries are only children and adolescents as well as young people (0 to 29 years old) who have permanent disabilities, and for indigenous population with disabilities from 0 to 64 years old. Since 2016, following the initiatives in most of the states, the federal government established a universal old age pension. Eligibility sets minimum age of 68 years (65 years if living in indigenous municipalities) and who do not receive any public or private sector old age pension or any similar program from their state of residence.